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Concept: Conversion of units


In patients with cutaneous melanoma, mitotic rate (MR) historically has been reported as the number of mitoses per high-power field (hpf) or per 10 hpf. The most recent revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system now incorporates MR and specifies that MR should be reported as mitoses per mm(2), with a conversion factor of 1 mm(2) equaling 4 hpf. However, because many pathologists continue to report MR in hpf units, we sought to compare the 2 conventions for reporting MR; this is important now that MR is used for staging and prognostic information.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cell cycle, Report, Melanoma, Mitosis, The Colbert Report, Conversion of units


Abstract Objectives. Because of its good matching performance the VITA 3D-Master shade guide (3D) is frequently used for determination of tooth color. Numerous composites/ceramics are, however, available in VITA Classical (VC) shades only. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of performing a shade match with 3D Master and converting this result via a table in a VC shade (indirect method) without this resulting in an apparent inferior shade matching in comparison with direct shade matching with the VC. Methods. Experiments were performed with an artificial, computer-generated tooth color space. Conversion tables were generated by calculating the color difference (ΔE) between a 3D shade and the closest VC shade (simple conversion table) and with the aid of optimization procedures. Statistical differences between the direct and indirect methods and between the indirect methods were assessed by use of a U-test. Results. Median ΔE was 2.38 for direct matching with the VC and 2.86 for indirect matching by use of a simple conversion table (p < 0.01). Optimized tables performed slightly better (median ΔE = 2.81). Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study, it is usually possible to determine tooth color with the 3D and convert it, via a table, into a VC shade without adding a clinically apparent error to the direct shade match with the VC.

Concepts: Color space, Conversion of units, Ton


While several thousand square kilometers of land area have been subject to surface mining in the Central Appalachians, no reliable estimate exists for how much coal is produced per unit landscape disturbance. We provide this estimate using regional satellite-derived mine delineations and historical county-level coal production data for the period 1985-2005, and further relate the aerial extent of mining disturbance to stream impairment and loss of ecosystem carbon sequestration potential. To meet current US coal demands, an area the size of Washington DC would need to be mined every 81 days. A one-year supply of coal would result in ∼2,300 km of stream impairment and a loss of ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity comparable to the global warming potential of >33,000 US homes. For the first time, the environmental impacts of surface coal mining can be directly scaled with coal production rates.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Kilometre, Methane, Coal, Global warming, Coal mining, Anthracite, Conversion of units


Two new D-π-A sensitizers ( and ) incorporating 5H-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4-f]isoindole-5,7(6H)-dione and 6H-pyrrolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline-6,8(7H)-dione core structures were synthesized and tested in liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). achieved a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.2% (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)).

Concepts: Solar cell, Titanium dioxide, Energy conversion, Energy conversion efficiency, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Thin film solar cell, IBM, Conversion of units


Relative-value units (RVUs) were developed in 1988 as a method of accounting for physicians' work effort and hospital or clinic expenses. Because RVUs provided a uniform, formulaic metric for myriad clinical services, they quickly became the prevailing method for setting fee-for-service payments for Medicare and private insurance. However, the dominance of the fee-for-service model has created strong structural impediments to physicians' participation in value-focused health care.(1) The success of new models of care will require not only changes in the way that health systems are organized and paid but also vigorous engagement by generalists and specialists, yet RVU formulas for . . .

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Health insurance, Hospital, System, Clinic, Conversion of units


Medication overdoses are a common, but preventable, problem among children. Volumetric dosing errors and the use of incorrect dosing delivery devices are 2 common sources of these preventable errors for orally administered liquid medications. To reduce errors and increase precision of drug administration, milliliter-based dosing should be used exclusively when prescribing and administering liquid medications. Teaspoon- and tablespoon-based dosing should not be used. Devices that allow for precise dose administration (preferably syringes with metric markings) should be used instead of household spoons and should be distributed with the medication.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Pharmaceutical drug, Units of measurement, Litre, Barbiturate, Injection, Conversion of units


Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales.

Concepts: Statistics, Mathematics, Estimation theory, Psychometrics, Scores, Estimation, Outcome, Conversion of units


We designed and synthesized two isomeric non-fullerene acceptors, IFBR-p and IFBR-d. These molecular semiconductors contain indacenodithiophene (IDT) as the central unit, adjacent asymmetric 5-fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole units, and are flanked with rhodanine as the peripheral units. The orientation of the two fluorine atoms (proximal, p, or distal, d), relative to IDT impacts most severely the film morphologies when blended with the electron-donating polymer PTzBI. Polymer solar cells based on PTzBI:IFBR-p give rise to a power conversion efficiency (7.3 ± 0.2%) that is higher than what is achieved with PTzBI:IFBR-d (5.2 ± 0.1%). This difference is attributed to the lower tendency for (over)crystallization by IFBR-p and the resulting more favorable morphology of the photoactive layer. These results highlight the subtle impact of substitution regiochemistry on the properties of non-fullerene acceptors through modulation of their self-assembly tendencies.

Concepts: DNA, Energy, Solar cell, Energy conversion, Energy conversion efficiency, Photovoltaic module, Band gap, Conversion of units


Early unplanned readmissions of “bouncebacks” to intensive care units are a healthcare quality metric and result in higher mortality and greater cost. Few studies have examined bouncebacks to the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU), and we sought to design and implement a quality improvement pilot to reduce that rate.

Concepts: Units of measurement, Conversion of units, The Sarah Jane Adventures


Herein we present the design, synthesis and characterization of two novel, naphthalene diimide (NDI) core-based non-fullerene acceptors, N5 and N6, comprising respectively 2-methoxyethyl-2-cyanoacetate and cyanopyridone acceptor functionalities at the terminals. The influence of terminal units on optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties was studied. The target chromophore bearing cyanopyridone acceptor units (N6) afforded a power conversion efficiency of 6.10% when paired with the conventional donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), a result that is the highest for the NDI core-based non-fullerene acceptors.

Concepts: The Target, Conversion of units