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Concept: Consensus


Multimorbidity and the associated use of multiple medicines (polypharmacy), is common in the older population. Despite this, there is no consensus definition for polypharmacy. A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarise polypharmacy definitions in existing literature.

Concepts: Definition, Consensus, Being


These guidelines describe a comprehensive strategy to optimize oxygenation, airway management, and tracheal intubation in critically ill patients, in all hospital locations. They are a direct response to the 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and Difficult Airway Society, which highlighted deficient management of these extremely vulnerable patients leading to major complications and avoidable deaths. They are founded on robust evidence where available, supplemented by expert consensus opinion where it is not. These guidelines recognize that improved outcomes of emergency airway management require closer attention to human factors, rather than simply introduction of new devices or improved technical proficiency. They stress the role of the airway team, a shared mental model, planning, and communication throughout airway management. The primacy of oxygenation including pre- and peroxygenation is emphasized. A modified rapid sequence approach is recommended. Optimal management is presented in an algorithm that combines Plans B and C, incorporating elements of the Vortex approach. To avoid delays and task fixation, the importance of limiting procedural attempts, promptly recognizing failure, and transitioning to the next algorithm step are emphasized. The guidelines recommend early use of a videolaryngoscope, with a screen visible to all, and second generation supraglottic airways for airway rescue. Recommendations for emergency front of neck airway are for a scalpel-bougie-tube technique while acknowledging the value of other techniques performed by trained experts. As most critical care airway catastrophes occur after intubation, from dislodged or blocked tubes, essential methods to avoid these complications are also emphasized.

Concepts: Critical thinking, The Canon of Medicine, Anesthesia, Endotracheal tube, Airway, Intubation, Consensus, Oropharyngeal airway


A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.

Concepts: Consensus, Consensus decision-making


To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Concepts: Definition, Macular degeneration, Consensus


Since the publication of Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 1.0) guidelines in 2008, the science of the field has advanced considerably. In this manuscript, we describe the development of SQUIRE 2.0 and its key components. We undertook the revision between 2012 and 2015 using (1) semistructured interviews and focus groups to evaluate SQUIRE 1.0 plus feedback from an international steering group, (2) two face-to-face consensus meetings to develop interim drafts and (3) pilot testing with authors and a public comment period. SQUIRE 2.0 emphasises the reporting of three key components of systematic efforts to improve the quality, value and safety of healthcare: the use of formal and informal theory in planning, implementing and evaluating improvement work; the context in which the work is done and the study of the intervention(s). SQUIRE 2.0 is intended for reporting the range of methods used to improve healthcare, recognising that they can be complex and multidimensional. It provides common ground to share these discoveries in the scholarly literature (

Concepts: Improve, Academic publishing, Peer review, The Work, Consensus, Formal, Consensus decision-making


In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner’s seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results.

Concepts: Consensus, De facto, Consensus decision-making


Despite technological advancements, REBOA is associated with significant risks due to complications of vascular access and ischemia-reperfusion. The inherent morbidity and mortality of REBOA is often compounded by coexisting injury and hemorrhagic shock. Additionally, the potential for REBOA-related injuries is exaggerated due to the growing number of interventions being performed by providers who have limited experience in endovascular techniques, inadequate resources, minimal training in the technique, and who are performing this maneuver in emergency situations. In an effort to ultimately improve outcomes with REBOA, we sought to compile a list of complications that may be encountered during REBOA usage. To address the current knowledge gap, we assembled a list of anecdotal complications from high-volume REBOA users internationally. More importantly, through a consensus model, we identify contributory factors that may lead to complications and deliberate on how to recognize, mitigate, and manage such events. An understanding of the pitfalls of REBOA and strategies to mitigate their occurrence is of vital importance to optimize patient outcomes.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Risk, Injury, Performance, Physical trauma, The Technique, Consensus, Consensus decision-making


The IDEA (International Deep Endometriosis Analysis group) statement is a consensus opinion on terms, definitions and measurements that may be used to describe the sonographic features of the different phenotypes of endometriosis. Currently, it is difficult to compare results between published studies because authors use different terms when describing the same structures and anatomical locations. We hope that the terms and definitions suggested herein will be adopted in centers around the world. This would result in consistent use of nomenclature when describing the ultrasound location and extent of endometriosis. We believe that the standardization of terminology will allow meaningful comparisons between future studies in women with an ultrasound diagnosis of endometriosis and should facilitate multicenter research. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Concepts: Comparison, Medical imaging, Academic publishing, Medical ultrasonography, John Wiley & Sons, Comparisons, Consensus, Copyright


Despite increasing interest in advance care planning (ACP) and prior ACP descriptions, a consensus definition does not yet exist to guide clinical, research, and policy initiatives.

Concepts: Definition, Consensus, Philosophical logic


Statistical training across the continuum of medical education may not have advanced at the pace of statistical reporting in the medical literature, yet a comprehensive understanding of statistical concepts most commonly presented in current research is critical to the effective practice of Evidence Based Medicine. The objective of this content analysis was to describe statistical techniques used in a leading medical journal, JAMA, across a 20-year period, with a focus on implications for medical education.

Concepts: The Canon of Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Avicenna, Physician, Alternative medicine, Medical literature, Consensus