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Concept: Conjunctiva


Wearing contact lenses has been identified as a risk factor for the development of eye conditions such as giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis. We hypothesized that wearing contact lenses is associated with changes in the ocular microbiota. We compared the bacterial communities of the conjunctiva and skin under the eye from 58 subjects and analyzed samples from 20 subjects (9 lens wearers and 11 non-lens wearers) taken at 3 time points using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing technique (V4 region; Illumina MiSeq). We found that using anesthetic eye drops before sampling decreases the detected ocular microbiota diversity. Compared to those from non-lens wearers, dry conjunctival swabs from lens wearers had more variable and skin-like bacterial community structures (UniFrac;P value = <0.001), with higher abundances ofMethylobacterium,Lactobacillus,Acinetobacter, andPseudomonasand lower abundances ofHaemophilus,Streptococcus,Staphylococcus, andCorynebacterium(linear discriminant analysis [LDA] score = >3.0). The results indicate that wearing contact lenses alters the microbial structure of the ocular conjunctiva, making it more similar to that of the skin microbiota. Further research is needed to determine whether the microbiome structure provides less protection from ocular infections.

Concepts: Bacteria, Eye, Cornea, Contact lens, Contact lenses, Keratitis, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis


PURPOSE:: To describe a modified Fasanella-Servat procedure and nomogram for the correction of minimal amounts of ptosis. METHODS:: Retrospective review of this modified Fasanella-Servat procedure was performed on 118 eyelids in 86 consecutive patients over 2, 4-year periods by 1 surgeon (S.C.D.). The amount of tarsectomy was based on the amount of ptosis. RESULTS:: Mean pre- and postoperative margin-to-reflex distance 1 were +0.7 mm and +2.4mm, respectively. One hundred and twelve eyelids (95%) had satisfactory results with postoperative margin-to-reflex distance 1 ≥ 1.5 mm. Eyelid symmetry was achieved in 92% of eyelids to within 0.5 mm. There was no incidence of overcorrection, tarsal buckling, or corneal abrasion. One eyelid had a contour deficit. Tarsectomy amount ranged from 2 mm to 5 mm. Average amount of tarsectomy to eyelid elevation was 2.4:1. CONCLUSION:: The modified Fasanella-Servat procedure is technically easy, time-efficient, and has a low complication rate for the treatment of minimal blepharoptosis (< 2.5 mm) with good levator function and negative phenylephrine test. In the authors' hands, the ratio of tarsectomy to eyelid elevation is approximately 2:1. In addition to other techniques such as levator advancement and Müller's muscle conjunctival resection, the modified Fasanella-Servat technique is a useful adjunct to the modern ptosis surgeon's armamentarium.

Concepts: Ratio, Eye, Conjunctiva, Eyelid, Lacrimal nerve, Ptosis, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Dermatochalasis


OBJECTIVE: To present a novel, minimally invasive technique for everted third eyelid cartilage correction in dogs that employs the use of low-energy cautery to remodel the cartilage. PROCEDURES: Twelve eyes of ten dogs had cautery performed under general anesthesia to correct everted third eyelid cartilage. The tip of a handheld cautery unit or an electrocautery handpiece was applied to the bulbar conjunctival surface of the third eyelid at the central location of cartilage convexity and treated to effect. This resulted in gradual conjunctival contraction and cartilage softening that remodeled the third eyelid to return to a more normal, physiologic position. When the tips of the cartilage bar were also curled, cautery was briefly applied to the convex surface to straighten the cartilage in a similar manner. RESULTS: Blanching of the conjunctiva at the site of treatment occurred. Char was sometimes present and was gently removed with a scalpel blade to improve postoperative patient comfort. Mild conjunctival hyperemia was noted in a few patients for 1-2 days after surgery, but there were no signs of discomfort or eyelid swelling. All dogs had good results in terms of cartilage correction with no recurrence; however, one of the Great Danes that had concurrent third eyelid gland prolapse required gland replacement surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Thermal cautery is a simple, inexpensive means of correcting third eyelid cartilage eversion in dogs with a high rate of success that preserves normal tissue while restoring function.

Concepts: Surgery, Eye, Anesthesia, Conjunctiva, Eyelid, Lacrimal nerve, Conjunctivitis, Scalpel


To evaluate the influence of pterygium morphology on the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue in pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting. A prospective case series. During a period of 15 months, 45 patients (51 eyes) were recruited from the General Hospital for pterygium surgery. Seven eyes (13.73 %) were operated on for a recurrent pterygium. Autologous conjunctiva was harvested from the superior bulbar conjunctiva and fixed with fibrin glue. The pterygia were preoperatively divided into atrophic/grade 1 (n = 18; 35.29 %), intermediate/grade 2 (n = 22; 43.14 %) or fleshy/grade 3 (n = 11; 21.57 %) according to clinical morphology. Patients were evaluated for intraoperative and postoperative complications and recurrence rates. The success rate was defined by no pterygium recurrences. Patients with 2-year follow-ups were included in this study. Fifty-one patients (21 females/30 males) with a mean age of 60-65 years (range 24-87 years) took part in the study. All patients completed the study. No intraoperative complications were noted. Postsurgical complications included graft edema (n = 4; 7.8 %), graft hyperemia (n = 2; 3.8 %), and graft dislocation (n = 3; 5.9 %); these complications were transient. One graft unfastened completely (2 %) and five pterygium recurrences occurred (n = 5; 9.8 %). The overall success rate was 90 % after 2 years. In grade I group there were no recurrences, in grade 2 group there were two recurrences, and in grade 3 group there were three recurrences. There were significantly more recurrences in grade 3 group than in grade 2 group. There were more recurrences in both groups than in group 1 (60 vs 40 vs 0 % of all recurrences, p ≤ 0.05). The use of fibrin glue is a safe, easy and effective technique for attaching the conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery. The morphology of pterygium influences recurrence rates, without significance for intraoperative and postoperative complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Rates, Eye, Conjunctiva, Recurrence relation, Pinguecula


Abstract Prolapse of the lacrimal gland is an unusual condition. An appearance of bilateral dermatochalasis was observed in the medical examination of a 30-year-old female patient with bilateral upper eyelid edema.The patient underwent bilateral blepharopylasty. During the surgery, it was noticed that in the temporal portions of the eyelids, there was a prolabed tissue-like lacrimal gland. We did incisional biopsy from the prolabed tissue that was thought to be orbital lobe of the lacrimal gland and carried out reposition of the orbital rim with 5-0 polyester suture and closed the orbital septum. Lacrimal gland reposition is a procedure which entails the separation of such anatomic structures as orbital septum, adipose tissue, and levator complex. However, failure to recognize a prolapsed lacrimal gland may mistreat by simple excision, and will lead to important alterations in ocular lubrication. In our case, repositioning of the glands was successfully performed during upper-lid blepharoplasty.

Concepts: Conjunctiva, Eyelid, Lacrimal nerve, Tears, Tarsus, Blepharoplasty, Dermatochalasis, Lateral palpebral arteries


PURPOSE:: To determine the efficacy and safety of argon laser photocoagulation of pinguecula by evaluating 1-year outcomes. METHODS:: Twenty-one eyes of 15 patients treated with argon laser photocoagulation (photocoagulation group) and 23 eyes of 16 patients treated with surgical excision (excision group) were retrospectively reviewed. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patient’s self-report on a 5-grade scale (excellent, good, acceptable, poor, and very poor), and evaluation of treatment outcome was based on objective findings of anterior segment photography and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. RESULTS:: Overall cosmetic results were excellent or good in 90.5% of laser-treated cases and 78.6% of surgically treated cases. There was no significant difference in cosmetic outcome (P = 0.15). Nineteen (90.5%) and 17 (63.9%) cases demonstrated complete removal of pingueculae after laser photocoagulation and surgical excision, respectively. The anatomic outcome was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.25). Subconjunctival hemorrhage and conjunctival scarring with an irregular surface occurred less frequently in the photocoagulation group than in the excision group [34.8% vs. 0% (P = 0.003) and 30.4% vs. 4.8% (P = 0.048), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:: Argon laser photocoagulation is an effective and safe method for removing a pinguecula for cosmetic purposes. The method facilitates control of the extent and depth of removal and thus minimizes conjunctival defects and other complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Laser, Physician, Ophthalmology, Conjunctiva, Excision, Subconjunctival hemorrhage


The authors retrospectively evaluated the use of botulinum toxin injections to treat epiphora in children secondary to proximal obstruction of the nasolacrimal drainage system. Three patients (ages 8, 9, and 16 years) received botulinum toxin injections in the palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland. Two patients experienced symptomatic relief immediately following botulinum toxin injection. Both required subsequent injections, with an average symptomatic relief lasting 7 months. The only noted side effect was papillary conjunctivitis in one patient that resolved without treatment. The third patient was lost to follow-up. Although conjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy with Jones tube is the surgical procedure of choice for treating proximal lacrimal system obstruction, complication rates in children are high. Botulinum toxin injections provide a safe and effective alternative. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2014;51:e75-e77.].

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Conjunctiva, Lacrimal nerve, Tears, Botulinum toxin, Lacrimal apparatus, Nasolacrimal duct, Nasolacrimal canal


The primary side effects associated with 0.1% brimonidine tartrate (BT) ophthalmic solution with sodium chlorite are allergic conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and conjunctival hyperemia. However, cornea-related side effects are rare. In this study, we report 2 similar cases in which corneal neovascularization, corneal infiltration, and corneal opacity developed after BT eye-drop use.

Concepts: Eye, Ophthalmology, Keratitis, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Allergic conjunctivitis, Brimonidine, Blepharitis


This case report describes a case of self-inflicted chronic bacterial keratoconjunctivitis involving the patient’s own semen. A 20-year-old male soldier was referred to our clinic for the evaluation of refractory chronic bacterial conjunctivitis. Over the previous 4 months, he had been treated for copious mucous discharge, conjunctival injection, and superficial punctate keratitis in both eyes at an army hospital and a local eye clinic. Despite the use of topical and systemic antibiotics according to the results of conjunctival swab culture, there was no improvement. During the repeated smear and culture of conjunctival swabs, surprisingly, a few sperm were detected on Gram staining, revealing that the condition was self-inflicted bacterial keratoconjunctivitis involving the patient’s own semen. Thus, in cases of chronic keratoconjunctivitis that do not respond to appropriate antibiotic treatment, self-inflicted disease or malingering should be considered.

Concepts: Medicine, Bacteria, Antiviral drug, Antibiotic, Keratitis, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Keratoconjunctivitis


The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Allergy, Ophthalmology, Sclera, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Allergic conjunctivitis