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Concept: Concha bullosa

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Background: Concha bullosa is the pneumatisation of intranasal conchae (usually the middle turbinate, and rarely the inferior or superior turbinate); however, the term is generally used to describe aeration of the middle concha. Superior concha bullosa is a rare finding, and only a few cases of inferior concha bullosa have been reported in the medical literature. When symptomatic, concha bullosa may cause various problems including nasal congestion, headache, postnasal drip, anosmia and, sometimes, epiphora. Methodology: Computed tomography, following history-taking and physical examination, is a valuable tool in diagnosing turbinate pneumatisation. This article presents a very rare case with bilateral triple conchae pneumatisations. Results: The symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment options for cases of multiple concha bullosa are discussed. The surgical interventions performed in the presented case are briefly described. Conclusion: The presented patient had pneumatisation of all six turbinates. In such cases, we propose that this condition be termed ‘conchae bullosis’ rather than ‘conchae bullosa’, in a similar fashion to the use of nasal polyposis as the plural form of nasal polyp.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Medical imaging, English language, Case, Physical examination, Medical history, Concha bullosa, Grammatical number

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Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ≤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha

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Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a highly heterogeneous disease with different host defence responses. However, whether periostin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are similarly impaired in patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP (ENP) and those with non-eosinophilic CRSwNP (nENP) remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the expression and possible modulation of periostin and VEGF, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin-2 in the polyp tissues from 30 patients with ENP and from 36 patients with nENP and in middle turbinate tissues from 12 control subjects. We found that ENP tissues exhibited a significantly increased expression of periostin and VEGF compared with tissues from patients with nENP and control subjects (P < 0.05, respectively). Accordingly, the expression of VEGF, RANTES, and eotaxin-2 in ENP fibroblasts was significantly up-regulated after stimulation with up-regulated periostin in vitro, but the expression of VEGF and RANTES was significantly inhibited by stimulation with down-regulated periostin. Our findings suggest that periostin might play an important role in the occurrence and progression of ENP and might be a potential therapeutic target.

Concepts: Gene expression, Sinusitis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Cystic fibrosis, Nasal polyp, Concha bullosa

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Fungus ball (FB) is the most common form of extramucosal fungal rhinosinusitis involving one or more paranasal sinuses. The sphenoid sinus is an uncommon site of this disease. Here, we present our 20-year experience of managing isolated sphenoid sinus FB (SSFB). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 47 cases of isolated SSFB encountered between 1996 and 2015 with reference to the chronological incidence, demographics, clinical features, radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome. Recently, the number of patients with isolated SSFB has increased markedly. The mean age of the patients in this study was 63.1 years (range 26-84 years), and there was significant female predominance. The most common symptom was headache (72.3%), which was localised in various regions. On the other hand, nasal symptoms presented at a relatively low rate. On computed tomography, the most common findings were total opacification, calcification, and sclerosis of the bony walls. There was no significant difference in the presence of SSFB between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Treatment consisted of endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy with complete removal of the FB. The prognosis was good, with no recurrence after a mean follow-up of 13.2 months. Isolated SSFB is a rare disease, but its prevalence is increasing. Although the clinical presentation is usually vague and nonspecific, SSFB should be considered in patients with unexplained headache, especially in elderly women. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy is a reliable treatment with low morbidity and recurrence rates.

Concepts: Disease, Sinusitis, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Prevalence, Headache, Concha bullosa

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Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. The material consisted of 32 skeletons (24 males, 8 females). The gender, age, and stress indicators and the presence of pathological signs were assessed, followed by CT of the skulls. We found 2 skulls (6.3 %) with concha bullosa. In one case septal nasal deviation was present. We conclude that the incidence of concha bullosa could be lower in the past times than at present. Wider research is necessary to settle whether concha bullosa is indeed a rare respiratory paleopathology or a missed, and thus underreported observation.

Concepts: Present, Modern history, Poland, Concha bullosa

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We aimed to investigate the relationships among concha bullosa (CB), nasal septal deviation (NSD), and sinus disease. We retrospectively reviewed paranasal sinus computed tomography scans obtained from 296 patients-132 men and 164 women, aged 17 to 76 years (median: 39)-who had been evaluated over a 19-month period. CBs were classified as lamellar, bulbous, and extensive. In cases of bilateral CB, the larger side was designated as dominant. In all, 132 patients (44.6%) exhibited pneumatization of at least one concha, 176 (59.5%) had NSD, and 187 (63.2%) had sinus disease. Some 89 of 106 patients with unilateral or one-side-dominant CB (84.0%) had NSD, 89 of 132 patients with CB (67.4%) had sinus disease, and 109 of the 176 patients with NSD (61.9%) had sinus disease. We found a statistically significant relationship between CB and contralateral NSD, but no significant relationship between CB and sinus disease or NSD and sinus disease. While CB is a common anatomic problem that may accompany NSD, a causal relationship between CB or NSD and sinus disease is dubious.

Concepts: Relationship, Causality, Sinusitis, Anatomy, Standard deviation, Self number, Concha bullosa, Rhinology

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The objectives of this study are to evaluate the occurrence of postoperative middle turbinate lateralization and the relationship between this lateralization and the risk of iatrogenic sinusitis after endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy procedure. Patients who undergone endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy and came under the surveillance of our otorhinolaryngology department between the January of 2010 and the December of 2015 were retrospectively scanned. Among them, the patients who were evaluated with paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) postoperatively were included in the study. The amount of middle turbinate lateralization in each patient was evaluated by comparing their routine preoperative CT image with the postoperative CT image. The air-fluid levels or soft tissue opacifications in the sinuses or obstruction of the ostiomeatal complex were accepted as the evidence of sinusitis on the images. The patients were asked questions regarding their symptoms of sinusitis on a phone interview for the statistical evaluation of their preoperative and postoperative Visual Analog Scale scores of complaints of sinusitis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative measurements was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001, 95% CI). The middle turbinate position was lateralized in 31 patients (81.6%), medialized in four patients (10.5%), and remained unchanged in three patients (7.9%). Overall, the sinus opacification and mucosal thickening rates did not change significantly which suggested the operation did not pose patients at increased risk of sinusitis. Mean VAS scores of complaints of sinusitis did not change significantly except for sensation of facial pressure, which showed a minor but statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001). This study revealed the lateralization of the middle turbinate after transnasal sphenoidotomy. However, it seemed that this lateralization did not create a predisposing factor for the development of acute and chronic sinusitis.

Concepts: Statistics, Sinusitis, Otolaryngology, Concha bullosa

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Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. The material consisted of 32 skeletons (24 males, 8 females). The gender, age, and stress indicators and the presence of pathological signs were assessed, followed by CT of the skulls. We found 2 skulls (6.3 %) with concha bullosa. In one case septal nasal deviation was present. We conclude that the incidence of concha bullosa could be lower in the past times than at present. Wider research is necessary to settle whether concha bullosa is indeed a rare respiratory paleopathology or a missed, and thus underreported observation.

Concepts: Present, Modern history, Poland, Concha bullosa

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Treatment of frontal sinus using surgery is complicated owing to the complex anatomical structure of the sinus region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Draf IIb endoscopic frontal sinus surgery treatment for frontal sinus lesions using the agger nasi approach on 19 patients (28 left or and right nasal cavities). A 10-12 mm excision of the upper frontal maxilla was performed for endoscopic resection between the middle turbinate and lateral nasal wall. No serious complications in frontal sinus surgery treatment for the removal of the frontal sinus were observed. Patients were followed up after surgery for 6-36 months. Chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps were identified in 10 cases (19 left or and right nasal cavities; disease control, 15 left or and right nasal cavities; and disease partial control, 4 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma was observed in 9 cases (9 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma were successfully treated in 8 cases, and 1 case of recurrence was observed. In conclusion, the nasal endoscopic Draf IIb agger nasi approach is a minimally invasive treatment for frontal sinus lesions. This surgical procedure is safe and less complicated and may be applied in the clinic.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Sinusitis, Cystic fibrosis, Anatomy, Nasal polyp, Concha bullosa

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To evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations in sinonasal area by nasal endoscopy and CT scan paranasal sinuses and to correlate the anatomical variations in sinonasal area with extent of disease. The present study was conducted on 40 patients of chronic sinusitis. All the patients underwent CT scan paranasal sinus axial and coronal view and nasal endoscopy. The most common anatomical variations were agger nasi cells (80 %), deviated nasal septum (72.5 %) and concha bullosa (47.5 %). Other anatomical variations seen in sinonasal region were uncinate process variations, paradoxical middle turbinate, haller cells, accessory ostia of maxillary sinus, multiseptated sphenoid. Osteomeatal unit (87.5 %) and maxillary sinuses (87.5 %) were the most commonly involved which was followed by anterior ethmoids (70 %), posterior ethmoids (50 %), frontal sinuses (32.5 %) and the sphenoids (20 %). Considering the results obtained, we believe that anatomical variations may increase the risk of sinus mucosal disease. We therefore, emphasize the importance of a careful evaluation of CT study in patients with persistent symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Anatomy, Maxillary sinus, Concha bullosa, Rhinology