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Concept: Concha bullosa


Background: Concha bullosa is the pneumatisation of intranasal conchae (usually the middle turbinate, and rarely the inferior or superior turbinate); however, the term is generally used to describe aeration of the middle concha. Superior concha bullosa is a rare finding, and only a few cases of inferior concha bullosa have been reported in the medical literature. When symptomatic, concha bullosa may cause various problems including nasal congestion, headache, postnasal drip, anosmia and, sometimes, epiphora. Methodology: Computed tomography, following history-taking and physical examination, is a valuable tool in diagnosing turbinate pneumatisation. This article presents a very rare case with bilateral triple conchae pneumatisations. Results: The symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment options for cases of multiple concha bullosa are discussed. The surgical interventions performed in the presented case are briefly described. Conclusion: The presented patient had pneumatisation of all six turbinates. In such cases, we propose that this condition be termed ‘conchae bullosis’ rather than ‘conchae bullosa’, in a similar fashion to the use of nasal polyposis as the plural form of nasal polyp.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Medical imaging, English language, Case, Physical examination, Medical history, Concha bullosa, Grammatical number


Antrochoanal polyp is a benign polypoid lesion orginating from the maxillary sinus antrum and extending to the choana. Our aim was to assess the clinical presentation and associated rhinological findings of antrochoanal polyp patients and to evaluate results of 2 surgical treatments termed endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and ESS plus mini-Caldwell operation. The study included 46 patients. Factors such as patient age, sex, history of chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, septal deviations, chonca bullosa, turbinate hypertrophy, and the origin of the polyp were assessed. We also evaluated ESS and ESS plus mini-Caldwell surgical procedures for recurrences, synechia, bleeding, and ostium stenosis. Overall, there were 27 men and 19 women. The ESS approach was used in 26 cases, and 20 cases had combined ESS and mini-Caldwell procedures. The statistical significant difference between the 2 groups was only recurrence (P ā‰¤ 0.05). In the ESS group, bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis were seen more than in the ESS + mini-Caldwell group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in bleeding, synechia, and ostium stenosis (P > 0.05). We thought that lower rate of recurrence found in ESS + Caldwell group in this study was associated with better visualization of the maxillary sinus walls and, therefore, easier resection of the remnant polyp. We concluded that higher incidences of bleeding and synechia were related to the mucosal damage occurring in the septum and the inferior concha due to excessive manipulation of endoscope and surgical instruments.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Allergy, Maxillary sinus, Rhinitis, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa, Inferior nasal concha


Concha bullosa is generally regarded as pneumatisation of the middle turbinate in the nose. However, pneumatisation may also be seen in the superior and inferior turbinate. Computed tomography (CT) of paranasal sinuses is extremely helpful for the examination of this inaccessible area. Coronal CT sections of paranasal sinuses are particularly useful for surgical anatomy, as these images show nearly the same regions as the endoscopic examinations. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence, incidence and unilaterality-bilaterality of superior turbinate pneumatisation and concomitant nasal pathologies.

Concepts: Anatomical terms of location, Examination, Concha bullosa


The treatment of the middle turbinate (MT) during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains a contentious issue with arguments both for and against its resection. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical impact of partial MT resection (PMTR) during ESS, paying particular attention to the risk of developing empty nose syndrome (ENS) and alteration to olfaction.

Concepts: Cohort study, Medicine, Clinical trial, Sinusitis, Anosmia, Philosophical terminology, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Concha bullosa


Polypoid edema of the middle turbinate is a marker of inhalant allergy. Extensive edematous changes may result in limited central nasal and sinus disease, which has been called central compartment atopic disease (CCAD). Radiologically, this is seen as soft tissue thickening in the central portion of the sinonasal cavity with or without paranasal sinus involvement. When the sinuses are involved, the soft tissue thickening spares the sinus roof or lateral wall (centrally limited). This centrally limited radiological pattern was assessed among chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and compared to allergy status.

Concepts: Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Sinusitis, Allergy, Atopy, Rhinitis, Rhinorrhea, Concha bullosa


A concha bullosa forms when the middle turbinate becomes pneumatized, which is a common anatomic variation; however, fungus ball in concha bullosa is rather rare. An otherwise healthy 52-year-old man presented to our ear, nose and throat clinic with the complaints of midfacial pressure headache and malodorous postnasal drip. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated a polypoid hyperdense lesion with slight microcalcifications in the right nasal cavity, accompanied with a complicated fluid collection in the right frontoethmoideal recess seen as hypodensity in contrast to this hyperdensity. The histopathological examination reported a fungal infection. We present an extremely rare case of isolated fungal mass in the right middle concha detected in an early stage without any evidence of fungal infection of the other paranasal sinuses and discuss the importance of reevaluation of the computed tomography scans in suspicion of a fungal sinusitis.

Concepts: Medicine, Sinusitis, Respiratory system, Nose, Nasal cavity, French Revolution, Concha bullosa, Rhinology


Common anatomic variants of the middle nasal turbinate include its pneumatization (i.e. concha bullosa media) and its paradoxical curvature. We report here two cases of differently combined variations of the middle turbinate which were documented in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The first report presents the vertical combination of a double or septated lamellar concha bullosa with the paradoxical curvature of middle turbinate. This combined variant associated (coincidental findings): ipsilateral paradoxical superior turbinate and contralateral paradoxical middle turbinate, concha bullosa superior and concha bullosa suprema. In the second case was found the sagittal combination of successive anterior concha bullosa media and posterior paradoxical curvature of the middle turbinate. An ethmoidal sinolith was found embedded in lamella basalis. The contralateral superior turbinate was pneumatized. These rare findings demonstrate that sound knowledge of possible anatomical variations, supported by a complete use of the tools available for the CBCT documentation of cases, is able to enrich the picture of human anatomic variations, with a direct impact on clinical and surgical practice. The septa-containing lamellar concha bullosa and paradoxical middle concha combination is a variation that affects surgical practice.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiology, Anatomy, Human anatomy, Anatomical terms of location, Sagittal plane, Dissection, Concha bullosa


Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a highly heterogeneous disease with different host defence responses. However, whether periostin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are similarly impaired in patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP (ENP) and those with non-eosinophilic CRSwNP (nENP) remains unclear. We sought to evaluate the expression and possible modulation of periostin and VEGF, regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin-2 in the polyp tissues from 30 patients with ENP and from 36 patients with nENP and in middle turbinate tissues from 12 control subjects. We found that ENP tissues exhibited a significantly increased expression of periostin and VEGF compared with tissues from patients with nENP and control subjects (Pā€‰<ā€‰0.05, respectively). Accordingly, the expression of VEGF, RANTES, and eotaxin-2 in ENP fibroblasts was significantly up-regulated after stimulation with up-regulated periostin in vitro, but the expression of VEGF and RANTES was significantly inhibited by stimulation with down-regulated periostin. Our findings suggest that periostin might play an important role in the occurrence and progression of ENP and might be a potential therapeutic target.

Concepts: Gene expression, Sinusitis, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Cystic fibrosis, Nasal polyp, Concha bullosa


Fungus ball (FB) is the most common form of extramucosal fungal rhinosinusitis involving one or more paranasal sinuses. The sphenoid sinus is an uncommon site of this disease. Here, we present our 20-year experience of managing isolated sphenoid sinus FB (SSFB). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 47 cases of isolated SSFB encountered between 1996 and 2015 with reference to the chronological incidence, demographics, clinical features, radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome. Recently, the number of patients with isolated SSFB has increased markedly. The mean age of the patients in this study was 63.1 years (range 26-84 years), and there was significant female predominance. The most common symptom was headache (72.3%), which was localised in various regions. On the other hand, nasal symptoms presented at a relatively low rate. On computed tomography, the most common findings were total opacification, calcification, and sclerosis of the bony walls. There was no significant difference in the presence of SSFB between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Treatment consisted of endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy with complete removal of the FB. The prognosis was good, with no recurrence after a mean follow-up of 13.2 months. Isolated SSFB is a rare disease, but its prevalence is increasing. Although the clinical presentation is usually vague and nonspecific, SSFB should be considered in patients with unexplained headache, especially in elderly women. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy is a reliable treatment with low morbidity and recurrence rates.

Concepts: Disease, Sinusitis, Medical imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Radiology, Prevalence, Headache, Concha bullosa


Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hypertrophy of the middle turbinate and signs of sinusitis or other pathology of the paranasal complex, in a population living in Tomersdorf-Toporow in the Upper Lausatia, a historical region in Germany and Poland, presently Zgorzelec County in the Lower Silesian voivodeship, at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. The material consisted of 32 skeletons (24 males, 8 females). The gender, age, and stress indicators and the presence of pathological signs were assessed, followed by CT of the skulls. We found 2 skulls (6.3ā€‰%) with concha bullosa. In one case septal nasal deviation was present. We conclude that the incidence of concha bullosa could be lower in the past times than at present. Wider research is necessary to settle whether concha bullosa is indeed a rare respiratory paleopathology or a missed, and thus underreported observation.

Concepts: Present, Modern history, Poland, Concha bullosa