Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Conceptual framework


The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Abstraction, Conceptual framework


We conducted the first synthesis of theories on causal associations and pathways connecting degree of control in the living environment to socio-economic inequalities in health-related outcomes. We identified the main theories about how differences in ‘control over destiny’ could lead to socio-economic inequalities in health, and conceptualised these at three distinct explanatory levels: micro/personal; meso/community; and macro/societal. These levels are interrelated but have rarely been considered together in the disparate literatures in which they are located. This synthesis of theories provides new conceptual frameworks to contribute to the design and conduct of theory-led evaluations of actions to tackle inequalities in health.

Concepts: Scientific method, Energy, Truth, Ontology, Concept, Conceptual framework, Determinism, Concepts


Notwithstanding that ‘public engagement’ is conceptualised differently internationally and in different academic disciplines, higher education institutions largely accept the importance of public engagement with research. However, there is limited evidence on how researchers conceptualise engagement, their views on what constitutes engagement and the communities they would (or would not) like to engage with. This paper presents the results of a survey of researchers in the Open University that sought to gather data to fill these gaps. This research was part of an action research project designed to embed engagement in the routine practices of researchers at all levels. The findings indicate that researchers have a relatively narrow view of public engagement with research and the communities with which they interact. It also identified that very few strategically evaluate their public engagement activities. We conclude by discussing some of the interventions we have introduced with the aim of broadening and deepening future researcher engagement.

Concepts: Marriage, Academic publishing, Research, Social sciences, Higher education, Conceptual framework, Research and development, Participatory action research


Health behaviors such as eating and exercising have been linked to stress in many studies, and researchers suggest that these links are in large part due to the use of health behaviors to cope with stress. However, health behaviors in the context of coping have received relatively little research attention. In this paper, we briefly survey the literature linking stress, coping, and health behaviors, noting that very little research has explicitly examined health behaviors as coping with stress. We address critical theoretical and methodological issues that arise in applying a stress and coping perspective to health behaviors. We conclude with suggestions for future research and potential directions for interventions, including the need for conceptually solid and methodologically rigorous research and the development of new measures. The concept of self-regulation and stress management and their implications in health behavior research and interventions is also discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Research, Management, Human behavior, Link, Conceptual framework, Research and development


When assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL), critical care outcomes research generally uses generic measures in the absence of a suitable critical care-specific measure. Our aims were to construct a conceptual framework of survivors' HRQL and assess the extent to which the 2 most commonly used generic measures (the Short Form 36 Health Survey and EuroQol-5D) covered the framework.

Concepts: Life, Measurement, Psychometrics, Thought, Concept, Abstraction, .NET Framework, Conceptual framework


To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King’s nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting.

Concepts: Research, Nursing, Nurse, Nurse practitioner, Registered nurse, Conceptual framework, Nursing specialties, Healthcare occupations


The lack of adequate conceptualisation and operationalisation of quality of life (QoL) limits the ability to have a consistent body of evidence to improve QoL research and practice in informal caregiving for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Thus, we conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative research to improve the conceptual understanding of the experiences of MS carers and to identify factors that affect carers' QoL.

Concepts: Scientific method, Quality, Multiple sclerosis, Perception, Ontology, Quantitative research, Conceptual framework, Fuzzy concept


Patient engagement in research (PEIR) is promoted to improve the relevance and quality of health research, but has little conceptualization derived from empirical data.

Concepts: Scientific method, Philosophy of language, Science, Research, Empiricism, Empirical, Concept, Conceptual framework


The language and conceptual framework of “research reproducibility” are nonstandard and unsettled across the sciences. In this Perspective, we review an array of explicit and implicit definitions of reproducibility and related terminology, and discuss how to avoid potential misunderstandings when these terms are used as a surrogate for “truth.”

Concepts: Scientific method, Philosophy of language, Research, Semantics, Logic, Concept, Conceptual framework, Reason


Globally, health-care systems and organizations are looking to improve health system performance through the implementation of a person-centred care (PCC) model. While numerous conceptual frameworks for PCC exist, a gap remains in practical guidance on PCC implementation.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Healthcare, Health, Concept, Systems engineering, Conceptual framework