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Concept: Computer network


Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied), and the information message (what the information is about). It focuses on the network’s ability to recognize information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behavior proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed.

Concepts: Cerebral cortex, Perception, Consciousness, Information, Cortical column, Robert Duvall, Computer network, Qualia


The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

Concepts: Control theory, Computer network, Control system, Control engineering, Convergence, Routing, Routing protocol, IS-IS


The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.

Concepts: Agriculture, Computer network, Internet, Internet Protocol, Wireless sensor network, Greenhouse, Ubiquitous computing, Communications protocol


Publish/subscribe is a communication paradigm where loosely-coupled clients communicate in an asynchronous fashion. Publish/subscribe supports the flexible development of large-scale, event-driven and ubiquitous systems. Publish/subscribe is prevalent in a number of application domains such as social networking, distributed business processes and real-time mission-critical systems. Many publish/subscribe applications are sensitive to message loss and violation of privacy. To overcome such issues, we propose a novel method of using secret sharing and replication techniques. This is to reliably and confidentially deliver decryption keys along with encrypted publications even under the presence of several Byzantine brokers across publish/subscribe overlay networks. We also propose a framework for dynamically and strategically allocating broker replicas based on flexibly definable criteria for reliability and performance. Moreover, a thorough evaluation is done through a case study on social networks using the real trace of interactions among Facebook users.

Concepts: Scientific method, Sociology, Communication, Computer network, Internet, Cryptography, Facebook, Overlay network


Wireless local area network (WLAN) is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands in the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band can be used in the WLAN environment. Because of the development of wireless communication technology and the use of the frequency bands without the need for authorization, the application of WLAN is becoming more and more extensive. As the key part of the WLAN system, the antenna must also be adapted to the development of WLAN communication technology. This paper designs two new dual-frequency microstrip antennas with the use of electromagnetic simulation software-High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The two antennas adopt ordinary FR4 material as a dielectric substrate, with the advantages of low cost and small size. The first antenna adopts microstrip line feeding, and the antenna radiation patch is composed of a folded T-shaped radiating dipole which reduces the antenna size, and two symmetrical rectangular patches located on both sides of the T-shaped radiating patch. The second antenna is a microstrip patch antenna fed by coaxial line, and the size of the antenna is diminished by opening a stepped groove on the two edges of the patch and a folded slot inside the patch. Simulation experiments prove that the two designed antennas have a higher gain and a favourable transmission characteristic in the working frequency range, which is in accordance with the requirements of WLAN communication.

Concepts: Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Computer network, Radio, Radio frequency antenna types, Patch antenna, IEEE 802.11, Microstrip antenna


Information routing is one of the main tasks in many complex networks with a communication function. Maps produced by embedding the networks in hyperbolic space can assist this task enabling the implementation of efficient navigation strategies. However, only static maps have been considered so far, while navigation in more realistic situations, where the network structure may vary in time, remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyze the navigability of real networks by using greedy routing in hyperbolic space, where the nodes are subject to a stochastic activation-inactivation dynamics. We find that such dynamics enhances navigability with respect to the static case. Interestingly, there exists an optimal intermediate activation value, which ensures the best trade-off between the increase in the number of successful paths and a limited growth of their length. Contrary to expectations, the enhanced navigability is robust even when the most connected nodes inactivate with very high probability. Finally, our results indicate that some real networks are ultranavigable and remain highly navigable even if the network structure is extremely unsteady. These findings have important implications for the design and evaluation of efficient routing protocols that account for the temporal nature of real complex networks.

Concepts: Mathematics, Real number, Metaphysics, Complex number, Computer network, Social network, RealNetworks, Hyperbolic space


This study explores the presence and actions of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brand, Blu, on Twitter to observe how marketing messages are sent and diffused through the retweet (i.e., message forwarding) functionality. Retweet networks enable messages to reach additional Twitter users beyond the sender’s local network. We follow messages from their origin through multiple retweets to identify which messages have more reach, and the different users who are exposed.

Concepts: Cigarette, Computer network, Twitter


For the first time we demonstrate the topotactic synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) interconnected network of nanoporous CoP nanowires directly on a Ti substrate (np-CoP NWs/Ti) via low-temperature phosphidation of a Co2(OH)2(CO3)2/Ti precursor and its further use as a highly efficient hydrogen evolution cathode.

Concepts: Surface, Computer network, Robin Beck


Colorectal cancer is driven by cooperating oncogenic mutations. In this study, we use organotypic cultures derived from transgenic mice inducibly expressing oncogenic β-catenin and/or PIK3CA(H1047R) to follow sequential changes in cancer-related signaling networks, intestinal cell metabolism, and physiology in a three-dimensional environment mimicking tissue architecture. Activation of β-catenin alone results in the formation of highly clonogenic cells that are nonmotile and prone to undergo apoptosis. In contrast, coexpression of stabilized β-catenin and PIK3CA(H1047R) gives rise to intestinal cells that are apoptosis-resistant, proliferative, stem cell-like, and motile. Systematic inhibitor treatments of organoids followed by quantitative phenotyping and phosphoprotein analyses uncover key changes in the signaling network topology of intestinal cells after induction of stabilized β-catenin and PIK3CA(H1047R) We find that survival and motility of organoid cells are associated with 4EBP1 and AKT phosphorylation, respectively. Our work defines phenotypes, signaling network states, and vulnerabilities of transgenic intestinal organoids as a novel approach to understanding oncogene activities and guiding the development of targeted therapies.

Concepts: Gene, Gene expression, Cancer, Bacteria, Evolution, Adenosine triphosphate, Sperm, Computer network


Differential network analysis is an important way to understand network rewiring involved in disease progression and development. Building differential networks from multiple `omics data provides insight into the holistic differences of the interactive system under different patient-specific groups. DINGO was developed to infer group-specific dependencies and build differential networks. However, DINGO and other existing tools are limited to analyze data arising from a single platform, and modeling each of the multiple ‘omics data independently does not account for the hierarchical structure of the data.

Concepts: Structure, Hierarchy, Heterarchy, Computer network, Functional genomics, Building, Differential