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Concept: Compulsive hoarding


Objectives: There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. Method: A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Results: Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. Conclusions: A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely, which is likely to complicate their treatment.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Abnormal psychology, Psychiatry, Personality disorders, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Scrupulosity


This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic profile of animal hoarders in a southern city of Brazil. In addition, it aimed to propose Animal Hoarding Disorder as a new nosological category, distinct from Hoarding Disorder. Thirty-three individuals with Animal Hoarding Disorder, 73% female and 60% elderly, composed the sample. The average age of the sample was 61.39 years (SD = 12.69) and the average period that individuals hoarded or lived with a large number of animals was 23.09 years (SD = 15.98.) It was observed that 56.7% of the sample hoarded other inanimate objects, besides the animals. The total number of hoarded animals was 1.357 and the average number of animals per hoarder was approximately 41 (SD = 24.41). Significant differences between hoarding disorder and animal hoarding are discussed. Unlike hoarded objects, hoarded animals generally do not obstruct domicile environments. The processes of disengaging from or donating animals also differ from those of object hoarding, since there is an affectional bond with lives and not with unanimated objects. In this sense, the characterization of Animal Hoarding Disorder as a new mental disorder may arouse great interest from both clinical professionals and researchers.

Concepts: The Animals, Compulsive hoarding, Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood, Eric Burdon, Animals, Alan Price, We Gotta Get out of This Place, Animal hoarding


Hoarding disorder is typified by persistent difficulties discarding possessions, resulting in significant clutter that obstructs the individual’s living environment and produces considerable functional impairment. The prevalence of hoarding disorder, as defined in DSM-5, is currently unknown.

Concepts: Compulsive hoarding, Hoarding


Previous research indicates that people with hoarding sometimes under- or over-report the severity of their symptoms. This article examines the results of two separate studies that evaluate severity ratings made by participants with hoarding disorder (HD) in comparison to ratings by family members or independent evaluators. In Study 1, HD participants' ratings of the severity of the clutter in their home and their hoarding behaviors were less severe than those made by their friends or family members. This result may be accounted for by family members' rejecting attitudes towards the participant. In Study 2, HD participants appeared to under-report specific hoarding symptoms while over-reporting their overall global impression of hoarding severity. A three-pronged assessment approach is recommended in which ratings of hoarding severity are made by the HD participant, their family member, and an independent observer or clinician. Such an approach would better inform future research, and also clinical treatment.

Concepts: Participation, E-participation, Member of Parliament, Compulsive hoarding, Hoarding


Home visits can improve treatment outcomes for hoarding disorder, but factors influencing the success of home visits remain unknown. As home visits expose individuals to clutter and fear, the present study examined the effect that fear and emotional reactivity have on the relationship between clutter and discarding behaviour.

Concepts: Present, Time, Compulsive hoarding, Hoarding


In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10-18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Reliability, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding


DSM-5 recognizes hoarding disorder as distinct from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), codifying a new consensus. Hoarding disorder was previously classified as a symptom of OCD and patients received treatments designed for OCD. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms responded differently to traditional OCD treatments compared with OCD patients without hoarding symptoms. An electronic search was conducted for eligible studies in PubMed. A trial was eligible for inclusion if it (1) was a randomized controlled trial, cohort or case-control study; (2) compared treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, or examined response to treatment between OCD symptom dimensions (which typically include hoarding) and (3) examined treatment response to pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy or their combination. Our primary outcome was differential treatment response between OCD patients with and those without hoarding symptoms, expressed as an odds ratio (OR). Twenty-one studies involving 3039 total participants including 304 with hoarding symptoms were included. Patients with OCD and hoarding symptoms were significantly less likely to respond to traditional OCD treatments than OCD patients without hoarding symptoms (OR=0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.42-0.60), z=-7.5, P<0.0001). This finding was consistent across treatment modalities. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms represent a population in need of further treatment research. OCD patients with hoarding symptoms may benefit more from interventions specifically targeting their hoarding symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 June 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.50.

Concepts: Experimental design, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding


Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform. Twin studies, family studies, and segregation analyses provide compelling evidence that OCD has a strong genetic component. The SLITRK1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and previous studies have implicated rare variants in this gene in disorders in the OC spectrum, specifically Tourette syndrome (TS) and trichotillomania (TTM). The objective of the current study was to evaluate rare genetic variation in SLITRK1 in risk for OCD and to functionally characterize associated coding variants. We sequenced SLITRK1 coding exons in 381 individuals with OCD as well as in 356 control samples and identified three novel variants in seven individuals. We found that the combined mutation load in OCD relative to controls was significant (p = 0.036). We identified a missense N400I change in an individual with OCD, which was not found in more than 1000 control samples (P<0.05). In addition, we showed the the N400I variant failed to enhance neurite outgrowth in primary neuronal cultures, in contrast to wildtype SLITRK1, which enhanced neurite outgrowth in this assay. These important functional differences in the N400I variant, as compared to the wildtype SLITRK1 sequence, may contribute to OCD and OC spectrum symptoms. A synonymous L63L change identified in an individual with OCD and an additional missense change, T418S, was found in four individuals with OCD and in one individual without an OCD spectrum disorder. Examination of additional samples will help assess the role of rare SLITRK1 variation in OCD and in related psychiatric illness.

Concepts: Tourette syndrome, Body dysmorphic disorder, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Trichotillomania


It is estimated that between 2% and 5% of the population experience symptoms of compulsive hoarding. Recent investigation into hoarding has shown that it is a problem in its own right and is therefore being added to a diagnostic manual of mental disorders. This integrative literature review examines the impact that hoarding has on family members. The comprehensive literature review spans a period from database inception to November 2012. A search of the databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, and psycINFO, together with hand searches, was completed. Thematic analysis revealed three overriding themes: quality of life, shattered families and rallying around. These themes illuminate the negative impact that hoarding behaviour has on families and the inadequacy of available services. The relative lack of robust evidence about the impact of hoarding behaviour on families suggests that further research is needed in this emergent field.

Concepts: Medicine, Mental disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Information retrieval, Searching, Genre, Hoarding, Collecting


Hoarding behavior may distinguish a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the relationship between executive dysfunction and hoarding in individuals with OCD.

Concepts: Self, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Executive functions