To summarise logistical aspects of recently completed systematic reviews that were registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registry to quantify the time and resources required to complete such projects.
Efforts to promote the completion of advance directives implicitly assume that completion rates of these documents, which help ensure care consistent with people’s preferences in the event of incapacity, are undesirably low. However, data regarding completion of advance directives in the United States are inconsistent and of variable quality. We systematically reviewed studies published in the period 2011-16 to determine the proportion of US adults with a completed living will, health care power of attorney, or both. Among the 795,909 people in the 150 studies we analyzed, 36.7 percent had completed an advance directive, including 29.3 percent with living wills. These proportions were similar across the years reviewed. Similar proportions of patients with chronic illnesses (38.2 percent) and healthy adults (32.7 percent) had completed advance directives. The findings provide benchmarks for gauging future policies and practices designed to motivate completion of advance directives, particularly among those people most likely to benefit from having these documents on record.
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) was conceived as a structured self-assessment tool to provide a situation analysis of hand hygiene resources, promotion and practices within healthcare facilities. AIM: To perform usability pretesting and reliability testing of the HHSAF. METHODS: The HHSAF draft was developed in consultation with experts to reflect key elements of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. Forty-two facilities were invited to pretest the draft HHSAF and complete a feedback survey. For reliability testing, two users in each facility completed the HHSAF independently. The reliability of each indicator, component subtotal and the overall score were estimated using the variance components model. After each phase, the tool was re-examined and modified as appropriate. FINDINGS: Twenty-seven indicators were selected during drafting. Twenty-six facilities in 19 countries completed pretesting (62% response rate), with total scores ranging from 35 to 480 (mean 262). The HHSAF took less than 2 h to complete for 21 facilities. Most agreed that the HHSAF was ‘easy to use’ (23/26) and ‘useful for establishing facility status with regard to hand hygiene promotion’ (24/26). Complete reliability responses were received from 41 facilities in 16 countries. Reliability for the total score for the HHSAF and the subtotal of each of the five components ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Seven indicators had poor reliability; these were examined for potential flaws and modified accordingly. CONCLUSION: This process confirmed the usability and reliability of this tool for the promotion of hand hygiene in health care.
Older adults (OAs) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are traditionally thought to have preservation of activities of daily living (ADLs). However, recent evidence suggests OAs with MCI may have difficulty completing ADLs and specifically instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The ADLs are frequently evaluated through self- or collateral report questionnaires, while performance-based measures are infrequently utilized, despite the decreased bias and increased accuracy and sensitivity associated with these instruments. This investigation compared ADLs between community-dwelling OAs with (n = 20) and without MCI (n = 30) using a self-report questionnaire (Older American Resources and Services Activities of Daily Living Scale; OARS), a collateral report questionnaire (OARS), and a performance-based measure (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status-Revised). Consistent with our hypothesis, OAs with MCI had decreased ADLs and IADLs on the performance-based measure compared to cognitively intact OAs, while there were no differences in ADLs or IADLs on self-report questionnaires or collateral report questionnaires. Our results suggest OAs with MCI have decreased ability to complete IADLs. However, this investigation suggests these deficits may not be detected by questionnaires and are more likely to be found with performance-based testing.
- Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare
- Published about 2 years ago
Few eligible children participate in early intervention (EI) programs. The objective of this study was to determine feasibility and outcomes of a novel patient navigation program on EI referrals among a diverse group of at-risk children. During a 6-month period, a patient navigator was assigned to an urban pediatric clinic to engage families, provide education on early child development and EI, and assist families with completing multidisciplinary evaluations. Families were eligible to participate if they spoke English, had a child <34 months old with a suspected developmental delay, and were referred to EI for evaluation. Families completed measures of demographics, language preference, and the Newest Vital Sign, a validated literacy measure. Outcomes on completion of EI referrals were obtained from the county EI provider. Of 88 EI referrals during the study period, 53 patients were eligible and enrolled. Patients were predominantly male, racially diverse, on public health insurance, with a mean age of 18.4 months. Most caregivers of patients had less than a high school education, spoke a non-English language at home, and had limited literacy. Forty-2 families (79.2%) completed a referral, and 34 (81.0%) of those were eligible for EI services. There were no significant differences in demographic, language, or literacy measures between those who completed and did not complete EI referrals. A patient navigation program to facilitate EI referrals was feasible in a diverse urban patient population. Preliminary results of the patient navigation program on EI referral completion were promising and warrant further study. (PsycINFO Database Record
The aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced simulation parameters, such as simulation exam scores, number of student self-evaluations, time to complete the simulation, and time to complete self-evaluations, served as predictors of dental students' preclinical performance. Students from three consecutive classes (n=282) at one U.S. dental school completed advanced simulation training and exams within the first four months of their dental curriculum. The students then completed conventional preclinical instruction and exams in operative dentistry (OD) and fixed prosthodontics (FP) courses, taken during the first and second years of dental school, respectively. Two advanced simulation exam scores (ASES1 and ASES2) were tested as predictors of performance in the two preclinical courses based on final course grades. ASES1 and ASES2 were found to be predictors of OD and FP preclinical course grades. Other advanced simulation parameters were not significantly related to grades in the preclinical courses. These results highlight the value of an early psychomotor skills assessment in dentistry. Advanced simulation scores may allow early intervention in students' learning process and assist in efficient allocation of resources such as faculty coverage and tutor assignment.
Third generation sequencing technologies provide the opportunity to improve genome assemblies by generating long reads spanning most repeat sequences. However, current analysis methods require substantial amounts of sequence data and computational resources to overcome the high error rates. Furthermore, they can only perform analysis after sequencing has completed, resulting in either over-sequencing, or in a low quality assembly due to under-sequencing. Here we present npScarf, which can scaffold and complete short read assemblies while the long read sequencing run is in progress. It reports assembly metrics in real-time so the sequencing run can be terminated once an assembly of sufficient quality is obtained. In assembling four bacterial and one eukaryotic genomes, we show that npScarf can construct more complete and accurate assemblies while requiring less sequencing data and computational resources than existing methods. Our approach offers a time- and resource-effective strategy for completing short read assemblies.
We developed a brief, informant-report interview for assessing autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in adults, called the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult); and completed a preliminary evaluation. Informant reports were collected for participants with ASC (n = 39), a non-clinical comparison group (n = 29) and a clinical comparison group (n = 20) who had non-autistic mental health conditions. Mean administration time was 38 min (50 min for ASC). Internal consistency (αs ≥ 0.93) and inter-rater agreement (ICCs ≥ 0.99) were high. When discriminating ASC from non-ASC, the 3Di-Adult showed excellent sensitivity (95%) and specificity (92%). The 3Di-Adult shows promise as a psychometrically sound and time-efficient interview for collecting standardised informant reports for DSM-5 assessments of ASC in adults, in research and clinical practice.
Survival following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD: the effect of program completion and change in incremental shuttle walking test distance
- International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Published 9 months ago
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COPD has consistently been shown to produce benefits in exercise capacity, symptoms, and health status. The data surrounding survival following PR are less clear. Our aims were to compare the long-term survival in two cohorts of patients referred for PR; those who successfully completed PR, and a comparator group constructed from patients who either did not complete PR or did not start the program. Additionally, we compared survival between those people who were able to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement in exercise capacity (incremental shuttle walking test) following PR with those who were not.
Higher levels of physical activity (PA) have been linked to better neurocognitive functioning in many populations. The current study examines the longitudinal association between PA and neurocognitive functioning among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Community-dwelling adults (N = 291) self-reported level of PA and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two to four study visits (Mean follow-up time = 2.6 years). Participants were divided into three PA groups: “No PA” (no PA at any visit), “consistent PA” (PA at ≥50% of visits), and “inconsistent PA” (PA < 50% of visits). A mixed effect model, adjusting for significant covariates showed that all PA groups had statistically significant, yet modest, neurocognitive decline over time; and, the consistent PA group began with, and maintained, significantly better neurocognitive function compared to the other two PA groups. This effect was evident among both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected persons, despite the fact that HIV-infected persons showed lower baseline neurocognitive function. PA is a modifiable lifestyle behavior that may help to protect against neurocognitive impairment regardless of HIV status, however, given the proportion of HIV-infected individuals who evidence neurocognitive difficulties, a focus on increasing PA seems warranted.