Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Completeness


To summarise logistical aspects of recently completed systematic reviews that were registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registry to quantify the time and resources required to complete such projects.

Concepts: Medicine, Completeness, Logic, Windows Registry, Register, Steve Davis


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) was conceived as a structured self-assessment tool to provide a situation analysis of hand hygiene resources, promotion and practices within healthcare facilities. AIM: To perform usability pretesting and reliability testing of the HHSAF. METHODS: The HHSAF draft was developed in consultation with experts to reflect key elements of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. Forty-two facilities were invited to pretest the draft HHSAF and complete a feedback survey. For reliability testing, two users in each facility completed the HHSAF independently. The reliability of each indicator, component subtotal and the overall score were estimated using the variance components model. After each phase, the tool was re-examined and modified as appropriate. FINDINGS: Twenty-seven indicators were selected during drafting. Twenty-six facilities in 19 countries completed pretesting (62% response rate), with total scores ranging from 35 to 480 (mean 262). The HHSAF took less than 2┬áh to complete for 21 facilities. Most agreed that the HHSAF was ‘easy to use’ (23/26) and ‘useful for establishing facility status with regard to hand hygiene promotion’ (24/26). Complete reliability responses were received from 41 facilities in 16 countries. Reliability for the total score for the HHSAF and the subtotal of each of the five components ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Seven indicators had poor reliability; these were examined for potential flaws and modified accordingly. CONCLUSION: This process confirmed the usability and reliability of this tool for the promotion of hand hygiene in health care.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Completeness, Analysis of variance, World Health Organization, Hygiene, The Promotion, Reliability theory


Older adults (OAs) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are traditionally thought to have preservation of activities of daily living (ADLs). However, recent evidence suggests OAs with MCI may have difficulty completing ADLs and specifically instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The ADLs are frequently evaluated through self- or collateral report questionnaires, while performance-based measures are infrequently utilized, despite the decreased bias and increased accuracy and sensitivity associated with these instruments. This investigation compared ADLs between community-dwelling OAs with (n = 20) and without MCI (n = 30) using a self-report questionnaire (Older American Resources and Services Activities of Daily Living Scale; OARS), a collateral report questionnaire (OARS), and a performance-based measure (the Direct Assessment of Functional Status-Revised). Consistent with our hypothesis, OAs with MCI had decreased ADLs and IADLs on the performance-based measure compared to cognitively intact OAs, while there were no differences in ADLs or IADLs on self-report questionnaires or collateral report questionnaires. Our results suggest OAs with MCI have decreased ability to complete IADLs. However, this investigation suggests these deficits may not be detected by questionnaires and are more likely to be found with performance-based testing.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Completeness, Measurement, Cognition, Metalogic, Quantitative marketing research, Questionnaire, Evidence


Few eligible children participate in early intervention (EI) programs. The objective of this study was to determine feasibility and outcomes of a novel patient navigation program on EI referrals among a diverse group of at-risk children. During a 6-month period, a patient navigator was assigned to an urban pediatric clinic to engage families, provide education on early child development and EI, and assist families with completing multidisciplinary evaluations. Families were eligible to participate if they spoke English, had a child <34 months old with a suspected developmental delay, and were referred to EI for evaluation. Families completed measures of demographics, language preference, and the Newest Vital Sign, a validated literacy measure. Outcomes on completion of EI referrals were obtained from the county EI provider. Of 88 EI referrals during the study period, 53 patients were eligible and enrolled. Patients were predominantly male, racially diverse, on public health insurance, with a mean age of 18.4 months. Most caregivers of patients had less than a high school education, spoke a non-English language at home, and had limited literacy. Forty-2 families (79.2%) completed a referral, and 34 (81.0%) of those were eligible for EI services. There were no significant differences in demographic, language, or literacy measures between those who completed and did not complete EI referrals. A patient navigation program to facilitate EI referrals was feasible in a diverse urban patient population. Preliminary results of the patient navigation program on EI referral completion were promising and warrant further study. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Patient, Completeness, Hospital, Physician, Patience, Child, Developmental psychology, Human development


The aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced simulation parameters, such as simulation exam scores, number of student self-evaluations, time to complete the simulation, and time to complete self-evaluations, served as predictors of dental students' preclinical performance. Students from three consecutive classes (n=282) at one U.S. dental school completed advanced simulation training and exams within the first four months of their dental curriculum. The students then completed conventional preclinical instruction and exams in operative dentistry (OD) and fixed prosthodontics (FP) courses, taken during the first and second years of dental school, respectively. Two advanced simulation exam scores (ASES1 and ASES2) were tested as predictors of performance in the two preclinical courses based on final course grades. ASES1 and ASES2 were found to be predictors of OD and FP preclinical course grades. Other advanced simulation parameters were not significantly related to grades in the preclinical courses. These results highlight the value of an early psychomotor skills assessment in dentistry. Advanced simulation scores may allow early intervention in students' learning process and assist in efficient allocation of resources such as faculty coverage and tutor assignment.

Concepts: Completeness, Education, Skill, Learning, Resource allocation, Final examination, Prosthodontics, Fixed prosthodontics


Third generation sequencing technologies provide the opportunity to improve genome assemblies by generating long reads spanning most repeat sequences. However, current analysis methods require substantial amounts of sequence data and computational resources to overcome the high error rates. Furthermore, they can only perform analysis after sequencing has completed, resulting in either over-sequencing, or in a low quality assembly due to under-sequencing. Here we present npScarf, which can scaffold and complete short read assemblies while the long read sequencing run is in progress. It reports assembly metrics in real-time so the sequencing run can be terminated once an assembly of sufficient quality is obtained. In assembling four bacterial and one eukaryotic genomes, we show that npScarf can construct more complete and accurate assemblies while requiring less sequencing data and computational resources than existing methods. Our approach offers a time- and resource-effective strategy for completing short read assemblies.

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Completeness, Organism, Sequence, Assembly language, Logic, Computational complexity theory


Chronic living at altitudes ~2500m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared to athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 weeks of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32M, 16W) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1780m, 2085m, 2454m, or 2800m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1250m - 3000m following a modified Live High - Train Low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. Upon return from altitude, 3000m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2085m and 2454m) but not in groups living at 1780m and 2800m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24h and 48h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72h in the 1780m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude, and was not different between groups. These data suggest that when completing a 4 week altitude camp following the Live High - Train Low model, there is a target altitude between 2000m and 2500m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance.

Concepts: Completeness, Red blood cell, Oceanography, Training, Metalogic, Ocean, Altitude sickness, Altimeter


OBJECTIVES:This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents' screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity.METHODS:We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention.RESULTS:Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI.CONCLUSIONS:These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users.

Concepts: Time, Nutrition, Completeness, United Kingdom, Mobile device, Attention span, Infomercial, Television advertisement


Learning to read proceeds smoothly for most children, yet others struggle to translate verbal language into its written form. Poor readers often have a host of auditory, linguistic, and attention deficits, including abnormal neural representation of speech and inconsistent performance on psychoacoustic tasks. We hypothesize that this constellation of deficits associated with reading disorders arises from the human auditory system failing to respond to sound in a consistent manner, and that this inconsistency impinges upon the ability to relate phonology and orthography during reading. In support of this hypothesis, we show that poor readers have significantly more variable auditory brainstem responses to speech than do good readers, independent of resting neurophysiological noise levels. Thus, neural variability may be an underlying biological contributor to well established behavioral and neural deficits found in poor readers.

Concepts: Psychology, Completeness, Linguistics, Language, Writing, Writing system, Orthography, Dyslexia


BACKGROUND: PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols in health and social care, was launched in February 2011. After one year of operation we describe access and use, explore user experience and identify areas for future improvement. METHODS: We collated administrative data and web statistics and conducted an online survey of users' experiences. RESULTS: On 21 February 2012, there were 1,076 registered users and 359 registration records published on PROSPERO. The database usage statistics demonstrate the international interest in PROSPERO with high access around the clock and around the world. Based on 232 responses from PROSPERO users (response rate 22%), almost all respondents found joining and navigation was easy or very easy (99%); turn round time was good or excellent (96%); and supporting materials provided were helpful or very helpful (80%). The registration fields were found by 80% to be relevant to their review; 99% rated their overall experience of registering with PROSPERO as good or excellent. Most respondents (81%) had a written protocol before completing the registration form and 19% did not. The majority, 136 (79%), indicated they completed the registration form in 60 minutes or less. Of those who expressed an opinion, 167 (87%) considered the time taken to be about right. CONCLUSIONS: The first year of PROSPERO has shown that registration of systematic review protocols is feasible and not overly burdensome for those registering their reviews. The evaluation has demonstrated that, on the whole, survey respondents are satisfied and the system allows registration of protocol details in a straightforward and acceptable way. The findings have prompted some changes to improve user experience and identified some issues for future consideration.

Concepts: Time, Completeness, Demonstration, Protocol, 2011, Surveying, Statistical survey, Register