Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Comparisons


To compare the efficiency and cytotoxicity of different transfection reagents used in transfection of RIP140-siRNA into Kupffer cells to optimize the transfection conditions.

Concepts: Comparison, Comparisons, Kupffer cell


For more than five years, high-dimensional mass cytometry has been employed to study immunology. However, these studies have typically been performed in one laboratory on one or few instruments. We present the results of a six-center study using healthy control human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and commercially available reagents to test the intra-site and inter-site variation of mass cytometers and operators. We used prestained controls generated by the primary center as a reference to compare against samples stained at each individual center. Data were analyzed at the primary center, including investigating the effects of two normalization methods. All six sites performed similarly, with CVs for both Frequency of Parent and median signal intensity (MSI) values<30%. Increased background was seen when using the premixed antibody cocktail aliquots at each site, suggesting that cocktails are best made fresh. Both normalization methods tested performed adequately for normalizing MSI values between centers. Clustering algorithms revealed slight differences between the prestained and the sites-stained samples, due mostly to the increased background of a few antibodies. Therefore, we believe that multicenter mass cytometry assays are feasible.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Comparison, Blood, Comparisons, PBMC, Database normalization, Cocktail


The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance.

Concepts: Comparison, Comparisons


While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries. Comparisons reveal substantial cross-national variation but cluster analysis suggests the different dimensions of migration evolve systematically to form a broad sequence characterised by low intensities, young ages at migration, unbalanced flows and high friction of distance at lower levels of development, trending to high intensities, an older age profile of migration, more closely balanced flows and lower friction of distance at later stages of development. However, the transition is not linear and local contingencies, such as international migration and political control, often distort the migration-development nexus, leading to unique migration patterns in individual national contexts.

Concepts: Comparison, United States, Dimension, Space, Human migration, Comparisons, Americas, Human Development Index


Previous studies on the relationship between olfaction and depression have revealed mixed results. In addition, few have focused on the reciprocity of this association. The aim of this study is to combine depression and olfactory data in two separate patient populations to further understand their association. A systematic literature review was conducted using 3 online databases to identify studies correlating olfaction and depression in patients presenting with either primary depression or primary olfactory dysfunction. For the depressed population, weighted means and standard deviations for the Sniffin' Sticks Test and the 40-item Smell Identification Test were combined using 10 studies. For the olfactory dysfunction population, weighted means of Beck’s Depression Inventory were combined using 3 studies. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between groups. Comparing primary depressed patients with controls, depressed patients showed decreased scores in olfactory threshold (6.31±1.38 vs. 6.78±0.88, P = 0.0005), discrimination (12.05±1.44 vs. 12.66±1.36, P = 0.0073), identification (12.57±0.74 vs. 12.98±0.90, P < 0.0001), and 40-Item Smell Identification Test (35.31±1.91 vs. 37.41±1.45, P < 0.0001). In patients with primary olfactory dysfunction, Beck's Depression Inventory scores were significantly different between patients classified as normosmics, hyposmics and anosmics (5.21±4.73 vs. 10.93±9.25 vs. 14.15±5.39, P ≤ 0.0274 for all 3 comparisons). In conclusion, patients with depression have reduced olfactory performance when compared with the healthy controls and conversely, patients with olfactory dysfunction, have symptoms of depression that worsen with severity of smell loss.

Concepts: Comparison, Statistics, Systematic review, Illness, Olfaction, Standard deviation, Odor, Comparisons


Leveraging the unrivalled performance of optical clocks as key tools for geo-science, for astronomy and for fundamental physics beyond the standard model requires comparing the frequency of distant optical clocks faithfully. Here, we report on the comparison and agreement of two strontium optical clocks at an uncertainty of 5 × 10(-17) via a newly established phase-coherent frequency link connecting Paris and Braunschweig using 1,415 km of telecom fibre. The remote comparison is limited only by the instability and uncertainty of the strontium lattice clocks themselves, with negligible contributions from the optical frequency transfer. A fractional precision of 3 × 10(-17) is reached after only 1,000 s averaging time, which is already 10 times better and more than four orders of magnitude faster than any previous long-distance clock comparison. The capability of performing high resolution international clock comparisons paves the way for a redefinition of the unit of time and an all-optical dissemination of the SI-second.

Concepts: Time, Comparison, Photon, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Comparisons, Universe, Standard Model


The comparison of observed global mean surface air temperature (GMT) change to the mean change simulated by climate models has received much public and scientific attention. For a given global warming signal produced by a climate model ensemble, there exists an envelope of GMT values representing the range of possible unforced states of the climate system (the Envelope of Unforced Noise; EUN). Typically, the EUN is derived from climate models themselves, but climate models might not accurately simulate the correct characteristics of unforced GMT variability. Here, we simulate a new, empirical, EUN that is based on instrumental and reconstructed surface temperature records. We compare the forced GMT signal produced by climate models to observations while noting the range of GMT values provided by the empirical EUN. We find that the empirical EUN is wide enough so that the interdecadal variability in the rate of global warming over the 20(th) century does not necessarily require corresponding variability in the rate-of-increase of the forced signal. The empirical EUN also indicates that the reduced GMT warming over the past decade or so is still consistent with a middle emission scenario’s forced signal, but is likely inconsistent with the steepest emission scenario’s forced signal.

Concepts: Scientific method, Comparison, Climate, Temperature, Climate change, Comparisons, Climate model, Global climate model


Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed.

Concepts: Comparison, Informed consent, Randomized controlled trial, Comparisons, TheStart


Iliosacral screw fixation into the first sacral body is a common method for pelvic ring fixation. However, this construct has been shown to be clinically unreliable for the percutaneous fixation of unstable Type C zone II vertically oriented sacral fractures with residual fracture site separation. The objective of this study was to biomechanically compare a locked transsacral construct versus the standard iliosacral construct in a Type C zone II sacral fracture model.

Concepts: Comparison, Bone fracture, Fracture, Fracture mechanics, Pelvis, Sacroiliac joint, Comparisons, Object-oriented programming


The aim of this study was to compare two different thermoplastic techniques-a core-carrier technique (Thermafil) and warm vertical compaction-in terms of overextension of root canal filling in vivo.

Concepts: Comparison, In vivo, Creativity techniques, Comparisons