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Concept: Comorbidity


The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Comorbidity, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD


 To determine whether late mortality after sepsis is driven predominantly by pre-existing comorbid disease or is the result of sepsis itself.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Epidemiology, Demography, Actuarial science, Comorbidity


INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complaint in men over 40 years of age, and prevalence rates increase throughout the aging period. Prevalence and risk factors of ED among young men have been scantly analyzed. AIM: Assessing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of young men (defined as ≤40 years) seeking first medical help for new onset ED as their primary sexual disorder. METHODS: Complete sociodemographic and clinical data from 439 consecutive patients were analyzed. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Descriptive statistics tested sociodemographic and clinical differences between ED patients ≤40 years and >40 years. RESULTS: New onset ED as the primary disorder was found in 114 (26%) men ≤40 years (mean [standard deviation [SD]] age: 32.4 [6.0]; range: 17-40 years). Patients ≤40 years had a lower rate of comorbid conditions (CCI = 0 in 90.4% vs. 58.3%; χ(2) , 39.12; P < 0.001), a lower mean body mass index value (P = 0.005), and a higher mean circulating total testosterone level (P = 0.005) as compared with those >40 years. Younger ED patients more frequently showed habit of cigarette smoking and use of illicit drug, as compared with older men (all P ≤ 0.02). Premature ejaculation was more comorbid in younger men, whereas Peyronie’s disease was prevalent in the older group (all P = 0.03). At IIEF, severe ED rates were found in 48.8% younger men and 40% older men, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, rates of mild, mild-to-moderate, and moderate ED were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory analysis showed that one in four patients seeking first medical help for new onset ED was younger than 40 years. Almost half of the young men suffered from severe ED, with comparable rates in older patients. Overall, younger men differed from older individuals in terms of both clinical and sociodemographic parameters. Capogrosso P, Colicchia M, Ventimiglia E, Castagna G, Clementi MC, Suardi N, Castiglione F, Briganti A, Cantiello F, Damiano R, Montorsi F, and Salonia A. One patient out of four with newly diagnosed erectile dysfunction is a young man-worrisome picture from the everyday clinical practice. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.

Concepts: Testosterone, Mental disorder, Prevalence, Erectile dysfunction, Comorbidity, Penis, Premature ejaculation, Sexual dysfunction


OBJECTIVE:: In a large nationwide administrative database of hospitalized patients, we investigated postoperative outcomes after laparoscopic or open distal gastrectomy in Japan. BACKGROUND:: The benefits of laparoscopic gastrectomy, such as decreased length of stay and morbidity, have typically been evaluated only with limited data on the basis of small samples. METHODS:: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination Database, we identified 9388 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with stage I and II gastric cancer and underwent laparoscopic (n = 3937) or open (n = 5451) distal gastrectomy between July and December 2010. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to compare in-hospital mortality, postoperative complication rates, length of stay, total costs, and 30-day readmission rates between the 2 groups. RESULTS:: Patients with younger age, lower comorbidity index, or stage I cancer were more likely to receive laparoscopic gastrectomy. In the propensity-matched analysis with 2473 pairs, the laparoscopic gastrectomy group in comparison with the open gastrectomy group showed a slight reduction in median postoperative length of stay (13 days vs 15 days, P < 0.001) but a slight increase in median total costs (US $21,510 vs $21,024, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (0.36% vs 0.28%, P = 0.80), overall postoperative complications (12.9% vs 12.6%, P = 0.73), or 30-day readmission rates (3.2% vs 3.2%, P = 0.94). CONCLUSIONS:: In this large nationwide cohort of patients with early-stage gastric cancer, laparoscopic gastrectomy was associated with a statistically significant but slight reduction in postoperative length of stay, but no differences between laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy were detected in terms of early mortality and morbidity.

Concepts: Cancer, Cancer staging, Statistical significance, Actuarial science, Stomach, Propensity score, Comorbidity, Propensity score matching


Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as “serious mental illness”.

Concepts: Linear regression, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Psychiatry, Mental illness, Comorbidity, Dissociative identity disorder, Dissociative disorders


Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at greater risk for developing pica compared to other children. This comorbidity can result in harmful medical and nutritional, and neurodevelopmental consequences. This article will describe the medical, nutritional, and psychosocial functioning in two children with SCD and pica in order to illustrate the potential complications and correlates of this co-morbidity. In addition, the clinical implications of pica in children with SCD will be discussed.

Concepts: Medicine, Sickle-cell disease, Comorbidity, Sickle, Latin


BACKGROUND: Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is often limited by recurrence in 25% of cases. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors of CDI recurrence during a provincial endemic. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected for 1 year in a Montréal hospital. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥ 18 years; admission for ≥ 72 hours; CDI diagnosis during current admission; no CDI diagnosis in the previous 3 months. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included, of which 42% were female. Mean age was 77 years old, with a median Charlson comorbidity index of 5. Forty patients (33%) had recurrent disease within 2 months of initial CDI treatment. There were 20 deaths (17%) within the 2-month follow-up period. Higher risk of CDI recurrence was independently associated with older age (HR=2.26 for each decade), female gender (HR=1.56), and lymphopenia at completion of CDI treatment (HR=2.18), while a positive C. difficile antitoxin serology was protective (HR=0.17). CDI recurrence was not associated with lymphopenia at time of diagnosis, underlying comorbidities, severity or treatment of the initial CDI episode, or re-exposure to antibiotics during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia at the end of CDI treatment appears to be a strong marker for CDI recurrence. This available and inexpensive test may identify patients who are at higher risk of CDI recurrence.

Concepts: Gut flora, Infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Comorbidity, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium, Clostridia


BACKGROUND: Aspiration pneumonia is a common syndrome, although less well characterized than other pneumonia syndromes. We describe a large population of patients with aspiration pneumonia. METHODS: In this retrospective population study, we queried the electronic medical records at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated hospital from 1996 to 2006. Patients were initially identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code 507.x; subsequent physician chart review excluded patients with aspiration pneumonitis and those without a confirmatory radiograph. Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia were compared to a contemporaneous population of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. We compared CURB-65 (a clinical prediction rule based on Confusion, Uremia, Respiratory rate, Blood Pressure, and age)-predicted mortality with actual 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We identified 628 patients with aspiration pneumonia, of which 510 were community-acquired. Median age was 77 years, with 30-day mortality of 21%. Compared to CAP patients, patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia had more frequent inpatient admission (99% vs 58%) and intensive care unit admission (38% vs 14%), higher Charlson comorbidity index (3 vs 1), and higher prevalence of do not resuscitate/intubate orders (24% vs 11%). CURB-65 predicted mortality poorly in aspiration pneumonia patients (area under the curve, 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia are older, have more comorbidities, and demonstrate higher mortality than CAP patients, even after adjustment for age and comorbidities. CURB-65 poorly predicts mortality in this population. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Pneumonia, Comorbidity, Aspiration pneumonia, Clinical prediction rule, CURB-65, Community-acquired pneumonia


Objectives: It was the aim of this study to determine the prognostic significance of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) following acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and assess the prognosis of patients without comorbidities (defined as a CCI score of 0). Methods: Outcomes of 1,023 consecutive patients admitted with confirmed PE were tracked after a median of 3.7 years (25-75th interquartile range 1.5-6.1 years). All were assigned a non-age-adjusted CCI score. Results: The median CCI score was 1.0 (interquartile range 0.0-3.0). Three hundred and fifty-one (34%) patients had a CCI score of 0. Only 1 (0.3%) of 31 in-hospital deaths occurred in patients with a CCI score of 0. Long-term mortality for these patients was similar to the population-derived age- and sex-matched mortality rate, and was significantly better than for those with a CCI score ≥1 (12.5 vs. 47.5%; p < 0.0001 adjusted for age and sex). In multivariate analysis, CCI (per 1-score increase) independently predicted in-hospital (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.49; p = 0.003) and post-discharge (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.42; p < 0.0001) death. The c statistics for the multivariate prediction models for in-hospital (incorporating CCI score and serum sodium level) and post-discharge death (age, CCI score, hyperlipidemia, serum sodium and hemoglobin) were 0.738 and 0.788, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The CCI can be incorporated into risk models, with good discriminatory power, for predicting in-hospital and long-term outcomes following acute PE. Patients with a CCI score of 0 have a favorable long-term outcome following acute PE.

Concepts: Death, Prediction, Futurology, Pulmonary embolism, Interquartile range, Prediction interval, Comorbidity, Hyponatremia


Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder frequently associated with comorbidities such as OCD, ADHD and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Tics are more common in Learning Difficulty (LD) populations. The mechanism of these associations is felt to vary for instance appearing to be more genetically based for OCD than for ADHD. The comorbid conditions seen with TS are known to be associated with increased or high rates of epilepsy. In turn, epilepsy cohorts also have high rates of neurodevelopmental and behavioural disorders. There has been little literature on epilepsy in TS.

Concepts: Autism, Mental disorder, Autism spectrum, Tourette syndrome, Comorbidity, Neurological disorders, Childhood psychiatric disorders