SciCombinator

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Concept: Community building

9

EvidenceNOW Southwest is a cluster-randomized trial evaluating the differential impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) care of engaging patients and communities in practice transformation in addition to standard practice facilitation support. The trial included development of locally tailored CVD patient engagement materials through Boot Camp Translation (BCT), a community engagement process that occurred before practice recruitment but after cluster randomization.

Concepts: Patient, Medicine, Illness, Health care provider, Community building, Medical terms, Hospital, Cardiovascular disease

9

In early 2013 an online survey of over 200 UK palliative care services published in the British Medical Journal found that most of these services were prioritizing ‘community engagement’ initiatives, most commonly adopting a ‘compassionate community’ model. Later this same year, a report released by the National Council for Palliative Care and the charity Murray Hall Community Trust, described the increasing uptake of compassionate communities by palliative care services in England. This review examines this new policy and practice development in British end of life care explaining its conceptual origins and describing its policy importance to current practice. Why services are increasingly turning to community partnerships and the reasons they believe that this approach might enhance the effectiveness and reach of their clinical work are described.

Concepts: Life, Community, Oncology, BMJ, Community building, Suffering, Palliative care, United Kingdom

6

Community engagement is increasingly seen as crucial to achieving high quality, efficient and collaborative care. However, organisations are still searching for the best and most effective ways to engage citizens in the shaping of health and care services. This review highlights the barriers and enablers for engaging communities in the planning, designing, governing, and/or delivering of health and care services on the macro or meso level. It provides policymakers and professionals with evidence-based guiding principles to implement their own effective community engagement (CE) strategies.

Concepts: Health care, Design, Policy, Community, Engagement, Economics, Community building, Management

6

Professional development opportunities are not readily accessible for most simulation educators, who may only connect with simulation experts at periodic and costly conferences. Virtual communities of practice consist of individuals with a shared passion who communicate via virtual media to advance their own learning and that of others. A nascent virtual community of practice is developing online for healthcare simulation on social media platforms. Simulation educators should consider engaging on these platforms for their own benefit and to help develop healthcare simulation educators around the world. Herein, we describe this developing virtual community of practice and offer guidance to assist educators to engage, learn, and contribute to the growth of the community.

Concepts: Social media, Community, Virtual community, Community building

6

Too often, community activists, striving to improve health in their neighborhoods, ask “Who will help?” and face the same response as the Little Red Hen in the children’s fable: “Not I.” But when a committed group of residents in the West River neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut, asked its community partners, including researchers and community organizers from the Community Alliance for Research and Engagement (CARE) at the Yale School of Public Health, to help build a community garden, they answered: “We will.” (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 13, 2015: e1-e2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302766).

Concepts: The Little Red Hen, Connecticut, Community building, Health care, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, Neighbourhood, Community

6

Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective.

Concepts: Psychology, Human capital, Clinical trial, Illness, Health care provider, Community building, Social capital, Sociology

5

Recently there have been calls for public health to reconnect to urban planning in ways that emphasize the impact of place on health and that address fundamental causes of poor health, such as poverty, social inequality, and discrimination. Community developers have realized that poor health limits individuals' and communities' economic potential and have begun to integrate into their work such neighborhood health issues as access to fresh food and open space. In this article we review recent shifts in the community development field and give examples of programs that operate at the intersection of community development, public health, and civic engagement. For example, in Sacramento, California, the Building Healthy Communities program successfully promoted the creation of community gardens and bike paths and the redevelopment of brownfields. A major housing revitalization initiative in San Francisco, California, known as Sunnydale-Velasco, is transforming the city’s largest public housing site into a mixed-income community that provides existing residents with new housing, infrastructure, services, and amenities. These examples and others illustrate the need to identify and make use of interdisciplinary approaches to ensure that all places are strong platforms for economic mobility, full democratic participation, and community health.

Concepts: Poverty, Socioeconomics, Development, Health, Economic inequality, Community, Community building, Population health

5

Promoting child wellbeing necessarily goes beyond the clinic as risks to child health and development are embedded in the social and physical environmental conditions in which children live. Pediatricians play a vital role in promoting the health of children in the communities they serve and can maximize their impact by advocating for and supporting efficacious, evidence-based strategies in their communities.

Concepts: Community, Child, Community building, Developmental psychology

4

Cooperation in collective action dilemmas usually breaks down in the absence of additional incentive mechanisms. This tragedy can be escaped if cooperators have the possibility to invest in reward funds that are shared exclusively among cooperators (prosocial rewarding). Yet, the presence of defectors who do not contribute to the public good but do reward themselves (antisocial rewarding) deters cooperation in the absence of additional countermeasures. A recent simulation study suggests that spatial structure is sufficient to prevent antisocial rewarding from deterring cooperation. Here we reinvestigate this issue assuming mixed strategies and weak selection on a game-theoretic model of social interactions, which we also validate using individual-based simulations. We show that increasing reward funds facilitates the maintenance of prosocial rewarding but prevents its invasion, and that spatial structure can sometimes select against the evolution of prosocial rewarding. Our results suggest that, even in spatially structured populations, additional mechanisms are required to prevent antisocial rewarding from deterring cooperation in public goods dilemmas.

Concepts: Natural selection, Public choice theory, Free rider problem, Goods, Collective action, Public good, Community building, Sociology

4

Improving mechanisms for knowledge translation (KT) and connecting decision-makers to each other and the information and evidence they consider relevant to their work remains a priority for public health. Virtual communities of practices (CoPs) potentially offer an affordable and flexible means of encouraging connection and sharing of evidence, information and learning among the public health community in ways that transgress traditional geographical, professional, institutional and time boundaries. The suitability of online CoPs in public health, however, has rarely been tested. This paper explores the reasons why particular online CoP for alcohol harm reduction hosted by the UK Health Forum failed to generate sufficient interest from the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed.

Concepts: Community, Community building