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Concept: Commonwealth of Nations


‘Medicalisation’ of same sex relations is a phenomenon that reached its peak in the 1950s and 1960s. The rise of gay liberation produced a divisive political contest with the psychiatric profession and adherents of the orthodox ‘medical model’ in the United States and - to a lesser extent - in the United Kingdom. This socio-historical process occurred throughout the English-speaking world, but much less is known about its dynamics in smaller countries such as New Zealand where the historiography on this issue is very sparse. The methodology situates New Zealand within a transnational framework to explore the circulation of medical theories and the critical responses they were met with. The article is anchored around three key local moments in the 1970s to consider the changing terrain on which ideas about homosexuality and psychiatry were constantly rearranged during this decade. This power struggle took a number of twists and turns, and the drive toward medicalisation alternated with a new impetus to de-medicalise same-sex sexuality.

Concepts: LGBT, United Kingdom, English language, Commonwealth of Nations, Sexual orientation, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Gay


To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data.

Concepts: Black people, United Kingdom, Europe, England, White people, Commonwealth of Nations, Refractive error, Northern Ireland


To estimate the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in children aged <17 years, compare this with similar data 10 years ago, and characterize clinical features at diagnosis in the UK and Republic of Ireland.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Europe, Commonwealth of Nations, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Irish Free State


To compare the determinants of initial statin prescribing between New Zealand and Australia. New Zealand has a system-wide absolute risk-based approach to primary care cardiovascular disease (CVD) management, while Australia has multiple guidelines.

Concepts: Medicine, New Zealand, General practitioner, Pacific Ocean, Australia, Solomon Islands, Commonwealth of Nations, Western Australia


The aim of this study was to determine the contemporary rate ratio of mortality and changes over time in individuals with vs without diabetes.

Concepts: United Kingdom, England, English language, Canada, Commonwealth of Nations, Sikhism, G8, Parliamentary system


It is well established that digit span in native Chinese speakers is atypically high. This is commonly attributed to a capacity for more rapid subvocal rehearsal for that group. We explored this hypothesis by testing a group of English-speaking native Mandarin speakers on digit span and word span in both Mandarin and English, together with a measure of speed of articulation for each. When compared to the performance of native English speakers, the Mandarin group proved to be superior on both digit and word spans while predictably having lower spans in English. This suggests that the Mandarin advantage is not limited to digits. Speed of rehearsal correlated with span performance across materials. However, this correlation was more pronounced for English speakers than for any of the Chinese measures. Further analysis suggested that speed of rehearsal did not provide an adequate account of differences between Mandarin and English spans or for the advantage of digits over words. Possible alternative explanations are discussed.

Concepts: China, People's Republic of China, English language, Commonwealth of Nations, Memory processes, Chinese language, Hong Kong, Mandarin Chinese


People of South Asian-origin are responsible for more than three-quarters of all the smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption worldwide; yet there is little evidence on the effect of SLT cessation interventions in this population. South Asians use highly addictive and hazardous SLT products that have a strong socio-cultural dimension. We designed a bespoke behaviour change intervention (BCI) to support South Asians in quitting SLT and then evaluated its feasibility in Pakistan and in the UK.

Concepts: Nicotine, United Kingdom, Commonwealth of Nations, Pakistan, British Chinese, Pet Shop Boys


The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experiences of nurses in Australia and the UK as they moved from clinical practice into higher education institutions.

Concepts: Sociology, Europe, Nursing, Commonwealth of Nations, Higher education


Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies.

Concepts: Skill, Training, Word, Learning, English language, Commonwealth of Nations, Orthography


To identify and compare how intensive care unit specialists in the United Kingdom and Australia and New Zealand self-reportedly define, assess and manage fluid overload in critically ill patients using a structured online questionnaire.

Concepts: Intensive care medicine, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Commonwealth of Nations, Constitutional monarchy, Commonwealth realm, God Save the Queen