SciCombinator

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Concept: Common oxide glass components

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In this study, the authors report the production of nanocomposite-enhanced phase-change materials (NEPCMs) using the direct-synthesis method by mixing paraffin with alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the experimental samples. Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO were dispersed into three concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt.%. Through heat conduction and differential scanning calorimeter experiments to evaluate the effects of varying concentrations of the nano-additives on the heat conduction performance and thermal storage characteristics of NEPCMs, their feasibility for use in thermal storage was determined. The experimental results demonstrate that TiO2 is more effective than the other additives in enhancing both the heat conduction and thermal storage performance of paraffin for most of the experimental parameters. Furthermore, TiO2 reduces the melting onset temperature and increases the solidification onset temperature of paraffin. This allows the phase-change heat to be applicable to a wider temperature range, and the highest decreased ratio of phase-change heat is only 0.46%, compared to that of paraffin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that TiO2, added to paraffin to form NEPCMs, has significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of paraffin.

Concepts: Temperature, Thermodynamics, Oxides, Titanium dioxide, Heat transfer, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Common oxide glass components

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Ceramic materials are prone to slow crack growth, resulting in strength degradation over time. Although yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics have higher crack resistance than other dental ceramics, their aging susceptibility threatens their long-term performance in aqueous environments such as the oral cavity. Unfortunately, increasing the aging resistance of Y-TZP ceramics normally reduces their crack resistance. Our recently conducted systematic study of doping 3Y-TZP with various trivalent cations revealed that lanthanum oxide (La2O3) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) have the most potent effect to retard the aging kinetics of 3Y-TZP. In this study, the crack-propagation behavior of La2O3 and Al2O3 co-doped 3Y-TZP ceramics was investigated by double-torsion methods. The grain boundaries were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). Correlating these analytic data with hydrothermal aging studies using different doping systems, a strategy to strongly bind the segregated dopant cations with the oxygen vacancies at the zirconia-grain boundary was found to improve effectively the aging resistance of Y-TZP ceramics without affecting the resistance to crack propagation.

Concepts: Electron, Oxygen, Aluminium, Oxide, Oxides, Ceramic materials, Zirconium dioxide, Common oxide glass components

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The composition of a CaO-rich silicate bioglass (BG_Ca-Mix, in mol%: 2.3 Na2O; 2.3 K2O; 45.6 CaO; 2.6 P2O5; 47.2 SiO2) was modified by replacing a fixed 10mol% of CaO with MgO or SrO or fifty-fifty MgO-SrO. The thermal behaviour of the modified glasses was accurately evaluated via differential thermal analysis (DTA), heating microscopy and direct sintering tests. The presence of MgO and/or SrO didn’t interfere with the thermal stability of the parent glass, since all the new glasses remained completely amorphous after sintering (treatment performed at 753°C for the glass with MgO; at 750°C with SrO; at 759°C with MgO and SrO). The sintered samples achieved good mechanical properties, with a Young’s modulus ranging between 57.9±6.7 for the MgO-SrO modified composition and 112.6±8.0GPa for the MgO-modified one. If immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), the modified glasses after sintering retained the strong apatite forming ability of the parent glass, in spite of the presence of MgO and/or SrO. Moreover, the sintered glasses, tested with MLO-Y4 osteocytes by means of a multi-parametrical approach, showed a good bioactivity in vitro, since neither the glasses nor their extracts caused any negative effect on cell viability or any inhibition on cell growth. The best results were achieved by the MgO-modified glasses, both BGMIX_Mg and BGMIX_MgSr, which were able to exert a strong stimulating effect on the cell growth, thus confirming the beneficial effect of MgO on the glass bioactivity.

Concepts: Oxide, Oxides, Glass, Calcium oxide, Common oxide glass components, Magnesium oxide, Beryllium oxide, Strontium oxide

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The effect of the amount of Hartree-Fock mixing parameter (α) and of the screening parameter (w) defining the range separated HSE type hybrid functional is systematically studied for a series of seven metal oxides: TiO2 , ZrO2 , CuO2 , ZnO, MgO, SnO2 , and SrTiO3 . First, reliable band gap values were determined by comparing the optimal α reproducing the experiment with the inverse of the experimental dielectric constant. Then, the effect of the w in the HSE functional on the calculated band gap was explored in detail. Results evidence the existence of a virtually infinite number of combinations of the two parameters which are able to reproduce the experimental band gap, without a unique pair able to describe the full studied set of materials. Nevertheless, the results point out the possibility of describing the electronic structure of these materials through a functional including a screened HF exchange and an appropriate correlation contribution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Sociology, Oxide, Oxides, Titanium dioxide, Set theory, Zinc oxide, Electronic band structure, Common oxide glass components

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The aim was to evaluate the optical properties, mechanical properties and aging stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia with different compositions, highlighting the influence of the alumina addition, Y2O3 content and La2O3 doping on the translucency.

Concepts: Oxides, Crown, Sintering, Dental restoration, Common oxide glass components, Refractory materials, Inorganic compounds

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Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO3, SrTiO3, and BaTiO3, together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO2, were investigated using a first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti-O-Ti bonds.

Concepts: Oxide, Oxides, Titanium, Electron configuration, Calcium oxide, Common oxide glass components, Magnesium oxide, Strontium oxide

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Engineered aluminum oxide (Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are utilized in a broad range of applications; causing noticeable quantities of these materials to be released into the environment. Issues of how and where these particles are distributed into the subsurface aquatic environment remain as major challenges for those in environmental engineering. In this study, transport and retention of Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2 NPs through various saturated porous media were investigated. Vertical columns were packed with quartz-sand, limestone, and dolomite grains. The NPs were introduced as a pulse suspended in aqueous solutions and breakthrough curves in the column outlet were generated using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. It was found that Al2O3 and TiO2 NPs are easily transported through limestone and dolomite porous media whereas NPs recoveries were achieved two times higher than those found in the quartz-sand. The highest and lowest SiO2-NPs recoveries were also achieved from the quartz-sand and limestone columns, respectively. The experimental results closely replicated the general trends predicted by the filtration and DLVO calculations. Overall, NPs mobility through a porous medium was found to be strongly dependent on NP surface charge, NP suspension stability against deposition, and porous medium surface charge and roughness.

Concepts: Oxygen, Sedimentary rock, Aluminium, Oxide, Silicon, Oxides, Quartz, Common oxide glass components

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility and disintegration of EndoBinder (EB) containing 3 different radiopacifying agents, bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zinc oxide (ZnO), or zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in comparison with gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and white MTA (WMTA).

Concepts: Oxide, Oxides, Titanium dioxide, Bismuth, Ceramic materials, Zirconium dioxide, Common oxide glass components, Calcium aluminate cements

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Surface functionalisation has become of paramount importance and is considered as a fundamental tool for the development and design of countless devices and engineered systems for key technological areas in biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. In this review, surface functionalisation strategies for alumina (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2), titania (TiO2), silica (SiO2), iron oxide (FexOy) and calcium phosphate (CaP), are presented and discussed. These inorganic-nonmetallic have become particularly important concerning the aforementioned applications, being not only of great academic, but also of steadily increasing human and commercial interest. In this review, a special emphasis is given to their use as biomaterials, (bio)sensors, biological targets, drug delivery systems, implants, chromatographic supports for (bio)molecule purification and analysis and adsorbents for toxic substances and pollutants. The objective of this review is to give the readership a broad picture of the enormous possibilities offered by surface functionalisation and to identify particular challenges regarding surface analysis and characterisation.

Concepts: Oxygen, Aluminium, Oxide, Oxides, Ceramic materials, Zirconium dioxide, Common oxide glass components, Refractory materials