SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Common facial vein

171

Recent evidence has indicated an association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Small internal jugular veins (IJVs) (with a cross-sectional area of less than 0.4 cm2) have been previously described as difficult to catheterize, and their presence may potentially affect cerebrospinal venous drainage. In this blinded extracranial color-Doppler study we had two principal aims: first, to assess prevalence of CCSVI among Serbian MS patients compared to healthy controls; and second, to assess prevalence of small IJVs (with a CSA <= 0.4 cm2) among MS patients and controls.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Area, Sclerotherapy, Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, Veins of the head and neck

67

The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. In this review, we describe the rationale for the use of US during CVC placement, the basic principles of this technique, and the current evidence and existing guidelines for its use. In addition, we recommend a structured approach for US-guided central venous access for clinical practice. Static and real-time US can be used to visualize the anatomy and patency of the target vein in a short-axis and a long-axis view. US-guided needle advancement can be performed in an “out-of-plane” and an “in-plane” technique. There is clear evidence that US offers gains in safety and quality during CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. For the subclavian and femoral veins, US offers small gains in safety and quality. Based on the available evidence from clinical studies, several guidelines from medical societies strongly recommend the use of US for CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. Data from survey studies show that there is still a gap between the existing evidence and guidelines and the use of US in clinical practice. For clinical practice, we recommend a six-step systematic approach for US-guided central venous access that includes assessing the target vein (anatomy and vessel localization, vessel patency), using real-time US guidance for puncture of the vein, and confirming the correct needle, wire, and catheter position in the vein. To achieve the best skill level for CVC placement the knowledge from anatomic landmark techniques and the knowledge from US-guided CVC placement need to be combined and integrated.

Concepts: Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Subclavian vein, Catheter, Common facial vein, Catheters, Peripheral venous catheter

28

A 15-year-old boy presented with signs of sepsis and a history of sore throat, fevers and shortness of breath. Full examination revealed an erythematous oropharynx and mild tonsillar swelling. He rapidly deteriorated requiring admission to intensive care. Blood cultures grew Fusobacterium necrophorum and an ultrasound scan performed for left neck tenderness confirmed internal jugular vein thrombosis. He was diagnosed with Lemierre’s syndrome. This condition results from pharyngitis or tonsillitis with bacterial spread to the lateral pharyngeal space. Internal jugular vein thrombosis ensues with septic emboli and metastatic infections that most frequently involve the lungs. Although increasing in incidence, diagnosis is often delayed. We discuss why and describe its clinical presentation, investigations of choice and treatment strategies.

Concepts: Pneumonia, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Neck, Fusobacterium necrophorum

28

Carotid puncture and insertion of a large-bore catheter into the carotid artery is a feared complication associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation. The use of ultrasound with real-time imaging of the neck vessels during needle insertion has the potential to decrease the incidence of serious complications associated with central venous access. The authors describe a new technique for ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation. The suggested “medial-oblique” approach allows for optimal imaging of the IJV and the carotid artery side by side and following the needle throughout the insertion from skin to vessel penetration in a medial-cephalad to lateral-caudad direction. This technique combines the advantages of the short-axis and long-axis approaches and minimizes the risk of carotid puncture from a medial-to-lateral needle direction.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Artery, Common carotid artery, Vein, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Common facial vein

28

We present a case of a patient with Lemierre’s syndrome caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum who developed a right frontal lobe brain abscess. We summarise the epidemiology, microbiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, complications, therapy, and outcomes of Lemierre’s syndrome. F necrophorum is most commonly associated with Lemierre’s syndrome: a septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. Patients usually present with an exudative tonsillitis, sore throat, dysphagia, and unilateral neck pain. Diagnosis of septic thrombophlebitis is best confirmed by obtaining a CT scan of the neck with contrast. Complications of the disease include bacteraemia with septic abscesses to the lungs, joints, liver, peritoneum, kidneys, and brain. Treatment should include a prolonged course of intravenous beta-lactam antibiotic plus metronidazole.

Concepts: Liver, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Frontal lobe, Common facial vein, Neck, Abscess, Fusobacterium necrophorum

9

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients frequently suffer from headaches and fatigue, and many reports have linked headaches with intracranial and/or extracranial venous obstruction. We therefore designed a study involving MS patients diagnosed with obstructive disease of internal jugular veins (IJVs), with the aim of evaluating the impact of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on headache and fatigue indicators.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Angioplasty, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Veins of the head and neck

6

5

Lemierre’s syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. This has been an uncommon illness in the era of antibiotic therapy, though it has been reported with increasing frequency in the past 15 years. Lemierre’s syndrome should be suspected in young healthy patients with prolonged symptoms of pharyngitis followed by symptoms of septicemia or pneumonia, or an atypical lateral neck pain. Diagnosis is often confirmed by identification of thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and growth of anaerobic bacteria on blood culture. Treatment involves prolonged antibiotic therapy occasionally combined with anticoagulation. We review the literature and a case of a child with Lemierre’s syndrome.

Concepts: Oxygen, Bacteria, Pneumonia, Cellular respiration, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Bacteremia

4

Nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a routine procedure in the management of surgical patients. We report the second case of internal jugular vein perforation during NGT insertion. A 79-year-old man presented with diffuse abdominal pain secondary to a perforated viscus. Abdominal CT revealed pneumoperitoneum, necessitating emergent exploratory laparotomy. On post-operative Day 7, the patient developed mild abdominal distension and subjective nausea for which NGT placement was ordered for decompression. Tube placement was confirmed by insufflation of air without aspiration of gastric contents. Output from the NGT upon placement revealed frank blood. The patient then developed respiratory distress requiring intubation, followed by a fatal arrhythmia. Post-mortem exam revealed the trajectory of the NGT through the pharyngeal wall into the right internal jugular vein. This case illustrates the importance of systematic evaluation of all procedures, as the outcome resulted from failure to recognize the initial error in tube placement.

Concepts: Blood, Patient, Abdominal pain, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Abdomen, Common facial vein, Veins of the head and neck

4

An 83-year-old man was evaluated for frequent palpitations. During an episode, examination of the neck revealed rapid and regular pulsations with bulging of the internal jugular veins, shown in a video. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia.

Concepts: Cardiology, Supraventricular tachycardia, Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Common facial vein, Neck, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, Veins of the head and neck