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Concept: Coming of age

190

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes.

Concepts: Medicine, Longitudinal study, Brain, Traumatic brain injury, Childhood, Coming of age

150

Our aim was to determine the association between childhood academic ability and the onset and persistence of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use across adolescence in a representative sample of English schools pupils. Previous research has produced conflicting findings.

Concepts: Sociology, Childhood, Youth, Wine, Coming of age

117

Adulthood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare disease. In contrast to childhood ALL, survival for adults with ALL is poor. Recently, new protocols, including use of pediatric protocols in young adults, have improved survival in clinical trials. Here, we examine population level survival in Germany and the United States (US) to gain insight into the extent to which changes in clinical trials have translated into better survival on the population level.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, United States, United Kingdom, U.S. state, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Orphan drug, Coming of age

102

Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging.

Concepts: DNA, Senescence, Biology, Telomere, Adult, Coming of age

67

Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States.

Concepts: Biology, Obesity, United States, Developed country, Child, Childhood, Adult, Coming of age

62

It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood.

Concepts: Genetics, Nutrition, Obesity, Mass, Adipose tissue, Body mass index, Body fat percentage, Coming of age

57

The relationship of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) to adult cancer has been inconsistent in the literature and there has been no review summarising the current evidence focused solely on cancer outcomes.

Concepts: Coming of age

30

Cesarean birth has been associated with higher risk of obesity in offspring, but previous studies have focused primarily on childhood obesity and have been hampered by limited control for confounders.

Concepts: Biology, Childhood, Adult, Coming of age

29

Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD symptoms in childhood and adulthood, and then were compared for baseline and outcome differences. Results: In all, 42% met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ODD as adults and were significantly more impaired on measures of ADHD, personality disorder, and substance abuse and 27% had childhood ODD that had resolved. Childhood and adult ODD symptoms were significantly correlated. ODD and ADHD symptoms improved significantly with MTS (p < .001), and the most consistently significant results were found in participants with adult ODD. Conclusion: A total of 69% met criteria for ODD as children and/or adults. Understanding how ODD interacts with ADHD to impact personality disorder, substance abuse, and treatment response has important clinical, social, and theoretical implications.

Concepts: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Mental disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Methylphenidate, Oppositional defiant disorder, Adult, Coming of age, Adulthood

28

The association between years of education and cognitive function in older adults has been studied extensively, but the role of quality of education is unknown. We examined indicators of childhood educational quality as predictors of cognitive performance and decline in later life.

Concepts: Psychology, Biology, Cognition, Cognitive science, Educational psychology, Social sciences, Association of Ideas, Coming of age