Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Colon


fifteen percent of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) are elderly; they are less likely to have complications and more likely to have colonic disease.

Concepts: Death, Medical terms, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Dietary fiber, Diarrhea


In 114 cases of the transverse colon isolated from cadavers (50 male, 64 female), anatomical examinations of the arterial system of the colon were performed. Arteriograms were obtained after dissecting and contrasting the colonic vessels with Mixobar contrast. In one case, on arteriography of the colon with its mesentery isolated from a 55-year-old male cadaver, a rare anatomical variant was found. The third mesenteric artery originated directly from the aorta-halfway between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and ascended obliquely in the direction of the hepatic flexure of the colon. Supply area of the artery was typical for the middle colic branch of the superior mesenteric artery: the distal segment of the ascending colon and the transverse colon. Such a variation, although very rare, may have particular impact on diagnosis and even the method and range of surgery.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Colon, Artery, Peritoneum, Superior mesenteric artery, Middle colic artery, Inferior mesenteric artery, Transverse colon


The employment of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies represents a backbone of the therapeutic options for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, this therapy is poorly effective or ineffective in unselected patients. Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes have recently emerged as the best predictive factors of low/absent response to EGFR-targeted therapy. Due to the need for efficacious treatment options for mCRC patients bearing these mutations, in this short report we examined the antitumoral activity of the protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate, alone and in combination with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab, in a panel of human CRC cell lines harbouring a different expression pattern of wild-type/mutated KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes. Results obtained showed that gabexate mesilate significantly inhibited the growth, invasive potential and tumour-induced angiogenesis in all the CRC cells employed in this study (including those ones harbouring dual KRAS/PIK3CA or BRAF/PIK3CA mutation), while cetuximab affected these parameters only in CRC cells with KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA wild-type. Notably, the antitumoral efficacy of gabexate mesilate and cetuximab in combination was found to be not superior than that observed with gabexate mesilate as single agent. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that gabexate mesilate could represent a promising therapeutic option for mCRC patients, particularly for those harbouring KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, either as mono-therapy or in addition to standard chemotherapy regimens. Further studies to better elucidate gabexate mesilate mechanism of action in CRC cells are therefore warranted.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Cancer, Breast cancer, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Cetuximab


To investigate the survival of individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-associated CRC) compared to that of individuals without IBD diagnosed with CRC.

Concepts: Cancer, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Constipation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Ileostomy


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing-remitting form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that increases the risk of colorectal cancer, the third most common malignancy in humans. Oxidative stress is a risk factor for the development of UC. The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses. In this study, we identified CPUY192018 as a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI, investigated the cyto-protective effects of CPUY192018 on the NCM460 colonic cells and evaluated whether treatment with the inhibitor of the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI exerts protection on an established experimental model of UC induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Our study clearly demonstrated that CPUY192018 had a cytoprotective effect against DSS in both NCM460 cells and mouse colon via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. These results suggested that activation of Nrf2 by directly inhibiting the Keap1-Nrf2 PPI may be beneficial as a treatment for UC.

Concepts: Cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Large intestine, Inflammatory bowel disease, Ileostomy, Toxic megacolon


The efficacy and safety of vedolizumab, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody against the integrin α4β7, was demonstrated in multicenter, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease. We analyzed data from 1 of these trials to determine the effects of vedolizumab therapy in patients with UC, based on past exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents.

Concepts: Monoclonal antibodies, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Infliximab, Abdominal pain, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


The appendix may modulate colon microbiota and bowel inflammation. We investigated whether appendectomy alters colorectal cancer risk.

Concepts: Cancer, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Constipation, Large intestine, Defecation


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the United States. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society provides an update of CRC incidence, survival, and mortality rates and trends. Incidence data through 2013 were provided by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the National Program of Cancer Registries, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data through 2014 were provided by the National Center for Health Statistics. CRC incidence rates are highest in Alaska Natives and blacks and lowest in Asian/Pacific Islanders, and they are 30% to 40% higher in men than in women. Recent temporal patterns are generally similar by race and sex, but differ by age. Between 2000 and 2013, incidence rates in adults aged ≥50 years declined by 32%, with the drop largest for distal tumors in people aged ≥65 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.48-0.52) and smallest for rectal tumors in ages 50 to 64 years (male IRR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96; female IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.08). Overall CRC incidence in individuals ages ≥50 years declined from 2009 to 2013 in every state except Arkansas, with the decrease exceeding 5% annually in 7 states; however, rectal tumor incidence in those ages 50 to 64 years was stable in most states. Among adults aged <50 years, CRC incidence rates increased by 22% from 2000 to 2013, driven solely by tumors in the distal colon (IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35) and rectum (IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31). Similar to incidence patterns, CRC death rates decreased by 34% in among individuals aged ≥50 years during 2000 through 2014, but increased by 13% in those aged <50 years. Progress against CRC can be accelerated by increasing initiation of screening at age 50 years (average risk) or earlier (eg, family history of CRC/advanced adenomas) and eliminating disparities in high-quality treatment. In addition, research is needed to elucidate causes for increasing CRC in young adults. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Medical statistics, United States, Colorectal cancer, Colon, American Cancer Society, Native Americans in the United States


ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that individuals with colorectal cancer have an altered gut microbiome compared to healthy controls. It remains unclear whether these differences are a response to tumorigenesis or actively drive tumorigenesis. To determine the role of the gut microbiome in the development of colorectal cancer, we characterized the gut microbiome in a murine model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer that mirrors what is seen in humans. We followed the development of an abnormal microbial community structure associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon. Tumor-bearing mice showed enrichment in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with members of the Bacteroides, Odoribacter, and Akkermansia genera and decreases in OTUs affiliated with members of the Prevotellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae families. Conventionalization of germfree mice with microbiota from tumor-bearing mice significantly increased tumorigenesis in the colon compared to that for animals colonized with a healthy gut microbiome from untreated mice. Furthermore, at the end of the model, germfree mice colonized with microbiota from tumor-bearing mice harbored a higher relative abundance of populations associated with tumor formation in conventional animals. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with antibiotics resulted in a dramatic decrease in both the number and size of tumors. Our results demonstrate that changes in the gut microbiome associated with inflammation and tumorigenesis directly contribute to tumorigenesis and suggest that interventions affecting the composition of the microbiome may be a strategy to prevent the development of colon cancer. IMPORTANCE The trillions of bacteria that live in the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome, are important for normal functioning of the intestine. There is now growing evidence that disruptive changes in the gut microbiome are strongly associated with the development colorectal cancer. However, how the gut microbiome changes with time during tumorigenesis and whether these changes directly contribute to disease have not been determined. We demonstrate using a mouse model of inflammation-driven colon cancer that there are dramatic, continual alterations in the microbiome during the development of tumors, which are directly responsible for tumor development. Our results suggest that interventions that target these changes in the microbiome may be an effective strategy for preventing the development of colorectal cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Oncology, Colorectal cancer, Tumor, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Constipation


The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) gave rise to the term “colitis-associated cancer” and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of CRC. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods which alter the composition of gut microbiota. Here, we demonstrate in a pre-clinical model of colitis-induced CRC that regular consumption of dietary emulsifiers carboxymethylcellulose or polysorbate-80 exacerbated tumor development. Enhanced tumor development was associated with an altered microbiota metagenome characterized by elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide and flagellin. We found that emulsifier-induced alterations in the microbiome were necessary and sufficient to drive alterations in major proliferation and apoptosis signaling pathways thought to govern tumor development. Overall, our findings support the concept that perturbations in host-microbiota interactions that cause low-grade gut inflammation can promote colon carcinogenesis.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Cancer, Bacteria, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Large intestine, Inflammatory bowel disease