The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC).
Vedolizumab, an α4β7 integrin monoclonal antibody inhibiting gut lymphocyte trafficking, is an effective treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the optimal position of vedolizumab in the UC treatment paradigm.
Vedolizumab is a gut-selective antibody to α4β7 integrin for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). We report an integrated summary of the safety of vedolizumab.
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers and increasing tight-junction proteins. This effect is consistent with Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory/antioxidant signaling pathway documented for other isothiocyanates similar to MIC-1. Therefore, MSE, enriched with MIC-1, may be useful in prevention and treatment of UC.
Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.
There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In this study, we characterized a specific population of nanoparticles derived from edible ginger (GDNPs 2) and demonstrated their efficient colon targeting following oral administration. GDNPs 2 had an average size of ∼230 nm and exhibited a negative zeta potential. These nanoparticles contained high levels of lipids, a few proteins, ∼125 microRNAs (miRNAs), and large amounts of ginger bioactive constituents (6-gingerol and 6-shogaol). We also demonstrated that GDNPs 2 were mainly taken up by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages, and were nontoxic. Using different mouse colitis models, we showed that GDNPs 2 reduced acute colitis, enhanced intestinal repair, and prevented chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). 2D-DIGE/MS analyses further identified molecular target candidates of GDNPs 2 involved in these mouse models. Oral administration of GDNPs 2 increased the survival and proliferation of IECs and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-22) in colitis models, suggesting that GDNPs 2 has the potential to attenuate damaging factors while promoting the healing effect. In conclusion, GDNPs 2, nanoparticles derived from edible ginger, represent a novel, natural delivery mechanism for improving IBD prevention and treatment with an added benefit of overcoming limitations such as potential toxicity and limited production scale that are common with synthetic nanoparticles.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recognized as a novel treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, its efficacy and safety remain unclear.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic disease with its severity continuously changing over time. We hypothesised that the risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in UC closely follows an actuarial accumulative inflammatory burden, which is inadequately represented by current risk stratification strategies.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is difficult to treat and standard therapy does not always induce remission. Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an alternative approach that induced remission in in small series of patients with active UC. We investigated its safety and efficacy in a placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis.