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Concept: Coconut water


BACKGROUND: Estrogen has been reported to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. This research studies the effect of young coconut juice (YCJ), presumably containing estrogen-like substances, on cutaneous wound healing in ovairectomized rats. METHODS: Four groups of female rats (6 in each group) were included in this study. These included sham-operated, ovariectomized (ovx), ovx receiving estradiol benzoate (EB) injections intraperitoneally, and ovx receiving YCJ orally. Two equidistant 1-cm full-thickness skin incisional wounds were made two weeks after ovariectomy. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the third and the fourth week of the study, and their serum estradiol (E2) level was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The skin was excised and examined in histological sections stained with H&E, and immunostained using anti-estrogen receptor (ER-alpha an ER-beta) antibodies. RESULTS: Wound healing was accelerated in ovx rats receiving YCJ, as compared to controls. This was associated with significantly higher density of immunostaining for ER-alpha an ER-beta in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, white blood cells, fat cells, sebaceous gland, skeletal muscles, and hair shafts and follicles. This was also associated with thicker epidermis and dermis, but with thinner hypodermis. In addition, the number and size of immunoreactive hair follicles for both ER-alpha and ER-beta were the highest in the ovx+YCJ group, as compared to the ovx+EB group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that YCJ has estrogen-like characteristics, which in turn seem to have beneficial effects on cutaneous wound healing.

Concepts: Wound healing, Healing, Estradiol, Skin, Dermis, Epidermis, Sebaceous gland, Coconut water


The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp.

Concepts: Arecaceae, Pesticide, Accuracy and precision, Coconut, Codex Alimentarius, Coconut water, Coconut milk, Coconuts


Globally, death due to cancers is likely to rise to over 20 million by 2030, which has created an urgent need for novel approaches to anticancer therapies such as the development of host defence peptides. Cn-AMP2 (TESYFVFSVGM), an anionic host defence peptide from green coconut water of the plant Cocos nucifera, showed anti-proliferative activity against the 1321N1 and U87MG human glioma cell lines with IC50 values of 1.25 and 1.85 mM, respectively. The membrane interactive form of the peptide was found to be an extended conformation, which primarily included β-type structures (levels > 45%) and random coil architecture (levels > 45%). On the basis of these and other data, it is suggested that the short anionic N-terminal sequence (TES) of Cn-AMP2 interacts with positively charged moieties in the cancer cell membrane. Concomitantly, the long hydrophobic C-terminal sequence (YFVFSVGM) of the peptide penetrates the membrane core region, thereby driving the translocation of Cn-AMP2 across the cancer cell membrane to attack intracellular targets and induce anti-proliferative mechanisms. This work is the first to demonstrate that anionic host defence peptides have activity against human glioblastoma, which potentially provides an untapped source of lead compounds for development as novel agents in the treatment of these and other cancers. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Cancer, Oncology, Cell membrane, Brain tumor, Coconut, Coconut water


In this work the efficiency of two lignocellulosic waste materials, wood residues and coconut mesocarp, were investigated as adsorbents towards two representative textile dyes (Remazol Red, RR and Remazol Brilliant Violet, RBV). The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, ash and fiber contents of both natural matrices were characterized. The materials were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis and thermogravimetry. The adsorption of dyes was monitored by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was verified that both, coconut mesocarp (CM) and wood residues can act as effective adsorbents towards the investigated dyes. It is verified that the maximum adsorption capacity ΓM (mg g(-1)) for RBV and RR are 7.28 and 3.97 towards CM and 0.64 and 0.71 towrads SD. Furthermore, it was verified that the adsorption is strongly pH dependent and, as a general behavior, an increase in the pH value is associated with a decrease of the total amount of adsorbed dye. The adsorption of violet dye onto coconut mesocarp is well described by the Langmuir model, while all the remazol red fitted better with the Freundlich equation.

Concepts: Electron, Spectroscopy, Adsorption, Scanning electron microscope, Coconut, Freundlich equation, BET theory, Coconut water


Here we investigate the mechanical properties and structural design of the pericarp of the green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The pericarp showed excellent impact characteristics, and mechanical tests of its individual components revealed gradients in stiffness, strength and elongation at break from the outer to the inner layer of the pericarp. In order to understand more about the potential effect of such gradients on ‘bulk’ material properties, we designed simple, graded, cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA) composites by stacking layers reinforced with fibres of different mechanical properties. Tensile properties of the graded composites were largely determined by the ‘weakest’ fibre, irrespective of the fibre distribution. However, a graded design led to pronounced asymmetric bending and impact properties. Bio-inspired, asymmetrically graded composites showed a flexural strength and modulus comparable to that of the strongest reference samples, but the elongation at maximum load was dependent on the specimen orientation. The impact strength of the graded composites showed a similar orientation-dependence, and peak values exceeded the impact strength of a non-graded reference composite containing identical fibre fractions by up to a factor of three. In combination, our results show that an asymmetric, systematic variation of fibre properties can successfully combine desirable properties of different fibre types, suggesting new routes for the development of high-performance composites, and improving our understanding of the structure-function relationship of the coconut pericarp.

Concepts: Arecaceae, Tensile strength, Fruit, Young's modulus, Dietary fiber, Coconut, Coconut water, Cuco


Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer.

Concepts: Fungus, Yeast, Arecaceae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Brewing, Beer, Coconut, Coconut water


In the current era, plants are frequently tested for its antidepressant potential. Therefore young coconut water, a commonly used plant based beverage, was selected to explore its antidepressant potential. Rodents were selected for this study and forced swim test was conducted to explore antidepressant activity. Analysis of brain biogenic amines using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and potentiation of noradrenaline toxicity model were also incorporated in this study to demonstrate probable antidepressant mechanism of action. Coconut water was administered orally at the dose of 4 ml/100 g. Young coconut water showed highly significant increase in struggling time (p < 0.001) in forced swim test. This suggests antidepressant effect of young coconut water. In noradrenaline toxicity model, it was observed that young coconut water is not a good adrenergic component as its lethality percentage in this test was observed 0 % unlike imipramine which showed lethality of 100 %. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of rodent's brain revealed decline in 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine, with concomitant decline in metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio. Findings from the exploration of monoamines suggest antidepressant effect of young coconut water via homeostasis of monoamines synthesis.

Concepts: High performance liquid chromatography, Neurotransmitter, Serotonin, Antidepressant, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Coconut, Coconut water


In this study microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to prepare highly luminescent carbon dots (1-6nm size) within a minute from tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water. The synthesized carbon dots (C-dots) exhibit emission of blue and green lights while excited at 390 and 450nm wavelengths, respectively. As an application, these C-dots were tested for a simple “turn on” fluorescent sensor for rapid detection of thiamine (vitamin B1). The detection of thiamine in human body is very important to prevent various diseases such as beriberi, neurological disorders, optic neuropathy, etc. The fluorescence emission intensity of C-dots quenches after addition of Cu(2+) ion and then again increases selectively (turn on) after the addition of thiamine. The fluorescence emission intensity enhancement of Cu(2+) ion modified C-dots in the presence of thiamine exhibits a linear relationship within the thiamine concentration range of 10-50μM. The limit of detection was found to be 280nM from this study. The selectivity of the detection was also tested in the presence of different organic molecules and inorganic ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-)) which are present in blood serum and urine and found to be almost no interference in the detection. Finally, to see the applicability in real samples a commercial vitamin capsule was tested and found less than 3% error in the detected concentration. The C-dots were also used for bioimaging of fungus and the results show they are also suitable for this application too.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Light, Atom, Vitamin, Coconut, Thiamine, Beriberi, Coconut water


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats.

Concepts: Coconut, Coconut water


The aims of the present study were to assess whether the antidiabetic activity of mature coconut water (MCW) is mediated through L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in diabetic rats, and to study the effects of MCW on blood coagulation.

Concepts: Present, Blood, Energy, Coagulation, Calcium, Platelet, Coconut, Coconut water