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Concept: Cobra


The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine sea snakes). The results of this study make an important contribution to our growing understanding of the selection pressures shaping the evolution of snake venom and its constituent toxins. The data also aid in elucidating the relationship between these selection pressures and the medical impact of human snakebite in the developing world, as cytotoxic cobras cause considerable morbidity including loss-of-function injuries that result in economic and social burdens in the tropics of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

Concepts: Natural selection, Africa, Cytotoxicity, Snake, Elapidae, King Cobra, Naja, Cobra


The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

Concepts: Genetics, Evolution, Southeast Asia, Thailand, Venom, Snake, Malaysia, Cobra


BACKGROUND: Early, intensive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the combination of (initially high dose) prednisolone, methotrexate and sulfasalazine (COBRA therapy) considerably lowers disease activity and suppresses radiological progression, but is infrequently prescribed in daily practice. Attenuating the COBRA regimen might lessen concerns about side effects, but the efficacy of such strategies is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ‘COBRA-light’ strategy with only two drugs, comprising a lower dose of prednisolone (starting at 30 mg/day, tapered to 7.5 mg/day in 9 weeks) and methotrexate (escalated to 25 mg/week in 9 weeks) to COBRA therapy (prednisolone 60 mg/day, tapered to 7.5 mg/day in 6 weeks, methotrexate 7.5 mg/week and sulfasalazine 2 g/day). METHOD: An open, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial in 164 patients with early active RA, all treated according to a treat to target strategy. RESULTS: At baseline patients had moderately active disease: mean (SD) 44-joint disease activity score (DAS44) 4.13 (0.81) for COBRA and 3.95 (0.9) for COBRA-light. After 6 months, DAS44 significantly decreased in both groups (-2.50 (1.21) for COBRA and -2.18 (1.10) for COBRA-light). The adjusted difference in DAS44 improvement between the groups, 0.21 (95% CI -0.11 to 0.53), was smaller than the predefined clinically relevant difference of 0.5. Minimal disease activity (DAS44 <1.6) was reached in almost half of patients in both groups (49% and 41% in COBRA and COBRA-light, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: At 6 months COBRA-light therapy is most likely non-inferior to COBRA therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 55552928.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Difference, Attenuation, Cobra


The spitting cobra Naja pallida can eject its venom towards an offender from a distance of up to two meters. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the relatively large distance covered by the venom jet although the venom channel is only of micro-scale. Therefore, we analysed factors that influence secondary flow and pressure drop in the venom channel, which include the physical-chemical properties of venom liquid and the morphology of the venom channel. The cobra venom showed shear-reducing properties and the venom channel had paired ridges that span from the last third of the channel to its distal end, terminating laterally and in close proximity to the discharge orifice. To analyze the functional significance of these ridges we generated a numerical and an experimental model of the venom channel. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) revealed that the paired interior ridges shape the flow structure upstream of the sharp 90° bend at the distal end. The occurrence of secondary flow structures resembling Dean-type vortical structures in the venom channel can be observed, which induce additional pressure loss. Comparing a venom channel featuring ridges with an identical channel featuring no ridges, one can observe a reduction of pressure loss of about 30%. Therefore it is concluded that the function of the ridges is similar to guide vanes used by engineers to reduce pressure loss in curved flow channels.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, Fluid mechanics, Liquid, Fluid, Computational fluid dynamics, Navier–Stokes equations, Naja, Cobra



The COBRA PzF coronary stent, which has a unique nano-coating of Polyzene-F, was developed to reduce the risk of stent thrombosis.

Concepts: Cardiology, Fiction, Stent, Novel, Cobra, Super Jump


We describe 70 cases of monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Bites were most common in the early morning and evening during the monsoon (May-July). Ligatures were routinely applied to the bitten limb before admission. Thirty-seven patients consulted traditional healers, most of whom made incisions around the bite site. Fifty-eight patients experienced severe neurotoxicity and most suffered swelling and pain of the bitten limb. The use of an Indian polyvalent antivenom in patients exhibiting severe neurotoxicity resulted in clinical improvement but most patients experienced moderate-to-severe adverse reactions. Antivenom did not influence local blistering and necrosis appearing in 19 patients; 12 required debridement. Edrophonium significantly improved the ability of patients to open the eyes, endurance of upward gaze, and peak expiratory flow rate suggesting that a longer-acting anticholinesterase drug (neostigmine) could be recommended for first aid. The study suggested that regionally appropriate antivenom should be raised against the venoms of the major envenoming species of Bangladesh and highlighted the need to improve the training of staff of local medical centers and to invest in the basic health infrastructure in rural communities.

Concepts: Flea, Venom, Snake, Bite, Bangladesh, Chittagong, Spider bite, Cobra


A toxicovenomic analysis of the venom of the forest cobra, N. melanoleuca, was performed, revealing the presence of a total of 52 proteins by proteomics analysis. The most abundant proteins belong to the three-finger toxins (3FTx) (57.1 w%), which includes post-synaptically acting α-neurotoxins. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) were the second most abundant group of proteins (12.9 w%), followed by metalloproteinases (SVMPs) (9.7 w%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) (7.6 w%), and Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors (3.8 w%). A number of additional protein families comprised each <3 w% of venom proteins. A toxicity screening of the fractions, using the mouse lethality test, identified toxicity in RP-HPLC peaks 3, 4, 5 and 8, all of them containing α-neurotoxins of the 3FTx family, whereas the rest of the fractions did not show toxicity at a dose of 0.53mg/kg. Three polyspecific antivenoms manufactured in South Africa and India were tested for their immunoreactivity against crude venom and fractions of N. melanoleuca. Overall, antivenoms immunorecognized all fractions in the venom, the South African antivenom showing a higher titer against the neurotoxin-containing fractions. This toxicovenomic study identified the 3FTx group of α-neurotoxins in the venom of N. melanoleuca as the relevant targets to be neutralized. Biological significance. A toxicovenomic analysis of the venom of the forest cobra, also known as black cobra, Naja melanoleuca, was performed. Envenomings by this elapid species are characterized by a progressive descending paralysis which starts with palpebral ptosis and, in severe cases, ends up with respiratory arrest and death. A total of 52 different proteins were identified in this venom. The most abundant protein family was the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, which comprises almost 57.1 w% of the venom, followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (12.9 w%). In addition, several other protein families were identified in a much lower percentage in the venom. A toxicity screening of the fractions, using the mouse lethality assay, identified four peaks as those having toxicity higher than that of the crude venom. These fractions predominantly contain α-neurotoxins of the 3FTx family. This toxicovenomic characterization agrees with the clinical and experimental manifestations of envenomings by this species, in which a strong neurotoxic effect predominates. Therefore, our findings suggest that immunotherapy against envenomings by N. melanoleuca should be directed towards the neutralization of 3FTxs; this has implications for the improvement of current antivenoms and for the development of novel antivenoms based on biotechnological approaches. A screening of the immunoreactivity of three antivenoms being distributed in sub-Saharan Africa revealed that they immunoreact with the fractions containing α-neurotoxins, although with different antibody titers.

Concepts: Proteins, Protein, Africa, Serine protease, Proteomics, Toxin, Cdx protein family, Cobra


Snake bite is an important public health issue in India and is almost always accidental in manner. Suicide by snake bite or injection of snake venom is extremely rare. Suicidal ideation and behavior is known to be influenced by various socio-economic and psychological factors. The method employed for suicide is also influenced by the occupation of the victim. We report a case where a snake charmer had attempted suicide by inflicting a bite by a monocled cobra.

Concepts: Scientific method, Public health, Suicide, Snake, Cobra


There is an ongoing controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of different percutaneous stenting techniques for coronary bifurcation lesions needing >1 stent. The promise of safe vessel restoration with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) may not be transferable to complex double BRS bifurcation techniques, and permanent metallic scaffolding of the bifurcation core may be needed. We identified modified-T stenting as the most promising fully bioresorbable 2-stent strategy in a preclinical setting. The objective of this study is to assess acute performance and compare long-term vessel healing with this strategy, versus an approach combining BRS with a dedicated metallic drug-eluting bifurcation stent.

Concepts: Comparison, Randomized controlled trial, Stent, Comparisons, Need, Chess, Scaffolding, Cobra