Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Coaching


Do coaches' leadership styles affect injury rates and the availability of players in professional football? Certain types of leadership behaviour may cause stress and have a negative impact on players' health and well-being.

Concepts: Sociology, Management, Injuries, Injury, Leadership, Coaching, Football, Professional sports


PURPOSE: To explore the mentor-mentee relationship with a focus on determining the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees and understanding the factors influencing successful and failed mentoring relationships. METHOD: The authors completed a qualitative study through the Departments of Medicine at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine between March 2010 and January 2011. They conducted individual, semistructured interviews with faculty members from different career streams and ranks and analyzed transcripts of the interviews, drawing on grounded theory. RESULTS: The authors completed interviews with 54 faculty members and identified a number of themes, including the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees, actions of effective mentors, characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships, and tactics for successful mentoring relationships. Successful mentoring relationships were characterized by reciprocity, mutual respect, clear expectations, personal connection, and shared values. Failed mentoring relationships were characterized by poor communication, lack of commitment, personality differences, perceived (or real) competition, conflicts of interest, and the mentor’s lack of experience. CONCLUSIONS: Successful mentorship is vital to career success and satisfaction for both mentors and mentees. Yet challenges continue to inhibit faculty members from receiving effective mentorship. Given the importance of mentorship on faculty members' careers, future studies must address the association between a failed mentoring relationship and a faculty member’s career success, how to assess different approaches to mediating failed mentoring relationships, and how to evaluate strategies for effective mentorship throughout a faculty member’s career.

Concepts: Qualitative research, Grounded theory, Coaching, Success, Alternative education, Youth mentoring, Mentorship, Maybach Foundation


Abstract Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team’s formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field.

Concepts: Management, Leadership, Coaching, Fiedler contingency model


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to explore some of the specific strategies used by midwife mentors to mediate practice learning from the perspective of a sample of student midwives. DESIGN: Audio-diaries were completed by student midwives over ten days in practice and were transcribed using discourse analysis. A sub-sample from 19 students' learning diaries from a national midwifery education study conducted by Pope et al. (2003) has been selected as the diaries informed a separate study. PARTICIPANTS: The sample of student midwives were studying on degree and diploma programmes at five case study sites in England. MAIN FINDINGS: Students described how their mentors apparently successfully tailored their teaching to the students' needs. However, there was perceived disparity in techniques used by individual mentors to pass on their practice know-how. The findings demonstrate the pivotal role of the mentor for ‘scaffolding’ learning and also using ‘fading’ techniques within a cognitive apprenticeship model. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Mentors need assistance to adapt their mentoring styles and to use a wider range of instruction strategies for student midwives. This has practical implications for mentor preparation programmes and mentorship models.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Coaching, Midwifery, Alternative education, Youth mentoring, Mentorship, Maybach Foundation


This study explored the association between coaching and the implementation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) by 129 urban elementary school teachers. Analyses involving longitudinal data on coaching and teacher implementation quality indicated that coaches strategically varied their use of coaching strategies (e.g., modeling, delivery) based on teacher implementation quality and provided additional support to teachers with low implementation quality. Findings suggest that coaching was associated with improved implementation quality of the GBG. This work lays the foundation for future research examining ways to enhance coach decision-making about teacher implementation.

Concepts: Research methods, School terminology, Education, School, Coaching, Teacher, History of education, Coach


This article describes the Coaching in Context (CinC) process, a family-driven, culturally responsive structure that facilitates family identification and achievement of goals. CinC focuses on modification of the demands of an activity with guidance from a health care professional who coaches the family to increase their participation in everyday activities. An interprofessional team is key in this process. Working as a team and communicating effectively across professions supports the health professional who serves as the coach. Effective interprofessional team collaboration is possible; health professions share values for the delivery of the highest quality of care.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Healthcare, Clinical trial, Sociology, Management, Coaching, Coach


Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices.

Concepts: Leadership, Coaching, Best practice, Management consulting, Coach


“Passion for work” has become a widespread phrase in popular discourse. Two contradictory lay perspectives have emerged on how passion for work is attained, which we distill into the fit and develop implicit theories. Fit theorists believe that passion for work is achieved through finding the right fit with a line of work; develop theorists believe that passion is cultivated over time. Four studies examined the expectations, priorities, and outcomes that characterize these implicit theories. Our results show that these beliefs elicit different motivational patterns, but both can facilitate vocational well-being and success. This research extends implicit theory scholarship to the work domain and provides a framework that can fruitfully inform career advising, life coaching, mentorship, and employment policies.

Concepts: Scientific method, Theory, Coaching, The Work, Socioeconomics


This study examined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in youth during flag football practice and compared youth MVPA in practices led by trained or untrained, and by experienced or inexperienced, coaches. Boys (n = 111, mean age = 7.9 ± 1.2 years) from 14 recreation-level flag football teams wore an accelerometer during two practices. Each team’s volunteer head coach reported prior training and coaching experience. Mixed-model team-adjusted means showed the proportion of practice time spent in sedentary (13 ± 1%), MVPA (34 ± 2%) and vigorous (12 ± 1%) activity. Practice contributed ~20 min of MVPA towards public health guidelines. There was no significant difference in percentage time spent in MVPA between teams with trained (mean = 33.3%, 95% CI = 29.4%, 37.2%) and untrained coaches (mean = 35.9%, 95% CI = 25.5%, 42.4%) or between experienced (mean = 34.1%, 95% CI = 30.2%, 38.0%) and inexperienced coaches (mean = 33.8, 95% CI = 27.9%, 39.7%). Although sport provides a setting for youth to accrue MVPA, two-thirds of practice was spent sedentarily or in light activity. Participation in a coach training programme was not associated with higher MVPA. Further research is needed to inform volunteer coach training programmes that provide coaches with skills necessary to increase the percentage of practice time spent in MVPA.

Concepts: Skill, Training, Practice, Empiricism, Experience, Philosophy of science, Coaching, Coach


Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended coach education sessions (where education on increasing MVPA and decreasing inactivity during training was delivered) can increase players' MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program compared to coaches who did not receive coach education sessions.Methods/design: A convenience sample of 80 female players and 8 coaches were recruited into the UWS School Holiday Basketball Program in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. A two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was employed to investigate whether coaches who attended 2 coach education sessions (compared with a no-treatment control) can increase their players' MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program. Objectively measured physical activity, directly observed lesson context and leader behaviour, player motivation, players' perceived autonomy support, and coaching information (regarding training session planning, estimations on player physical activity and lesson context during training, perceived ability to modify training sessions, perceived importance of physical activity during training, intention to increase physical activity/reduce inactivity, and likelihood of increasing physical activity/reducing inactivity) were assessed at baseline (day 1) and at follow-up (day 5). Linear mixed models will be used to analyse between arm differences in changes from baseline to follow-up on all outcomes.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Coaching, Coach