SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Clothing

206

The attire of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old natural mummy from the Ötzal Italian Alps, provides a surviving example of ancient manufacturing technologies. Research into his garments has however, been limited by ambiguity surrounding their source species. Here we present a targeted enrichment and sequencing of full mitochondrial genomes sampled from his clothes and quiver, which elucidates the species of production for nine fragments. Results indicate that the majority of the samples originate from domestic ungulate species (cattle, sheep and goat), whose recovered haplogroups are now at high frequency in today’s domestic populations. Intriguingly, the hat and quiver samples were produced from wild species, brown bear and roe deer respectively. Combined, these results suggest that Copper Age populations made considered choices of clothing material from both the wild and domestic populations available to them. Moreover, these results show the potential for the recovery of complete mitochondrial genomes from degraded prehistoric artefacts.

Concepts: DNA, Deer, Elk, Clothing, Uniform, Ötzi the Iceman, Clothing material

85

The role of clothing in the management of eczema (also called atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema) is poorly understood. This trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of silk garments (in addition to standard care) for the management of eczema in children with moderate to severe disease.

Concepts: Atopy, Eczema, Textile, Atopic dermatitis, Clothing

79

Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the “opposite” gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children.

Concepts: Psychology, Gender, Sociology, Childhood, English language, Positive psychology, Transgender, Clothing

74

In this paper, we report on a novel sensor for the contactless monitoring of the respiration rate, made from multi-material fibers arranged in the form of spiral antenna (2.45 GHz central frequency). High flexibility of the used composite metal-glass-polymer fibers permits their integration into a cotton t-shirt without compromising comfort or restricting movement of the user. At the same time, change of the antenna geometry, due to the chest expansion and the displacement of the air volume in the lungs, is found to cause a significant shift of the antenna operational frequency, thus allowing respiration detection. In contrast with many current solutions, respiration is detected without attachment of the electrodes of any kind to the user’s body, neither direct contact of the fiber with the skin is required. Respiration patterns for two male volunteers were recorded with the help of a sensor prototype integrated into standard cotton t-shirt in sitting, standing, and lying scenarios. The typical measured frequency shift for the deep and shallow breathing was found to be in the range 120-200 MHz and 10-15 MHz, respectively. The same spiral fiber antenna is also shown to be suitable for short-range wireless communication, thus allowing respiration data transmission, for example, via the Bluetooth protocol, to mobile handheld devices.

Concepts: Electromagnetic radiation, Frequency, Hertz, Mobile device, Bluetooth, Clothing, Wireless, Heinrich Hertz

31

Cotton is a promising basis for wearable smart textiles. Current approaches that rely on fiber coatings suffer from function loss during wear. We present an approach that allows biological incorporation of exogenous molecules into cotton fibers to tailor the material’s functionality. In vitro model cultures of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) are incubated with 6-carboxyfluorescein-glucose and dysprosium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-glucose, where the glucose moiety acts as a carrier capable of traveling from the vascular connection to the outermost cell layer of the ovule epidermis, becoming incorporated into the cellulose fibers. This yields fibers with unnatural properties such as fluorescence or magnetism. Combining biological systems with the appropriate molecular design offers numerous possibilities to grow functional composite materials and implements a material-farming concept.

Concepts: Electron, Cotton, Cellulose, Dietary fiber, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium, Clothing, Cellulose fiber

29

Static headspace - multi-capillary column - gas chromatography - ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-MCC-GC-IMS) has been applied to the analysis of malodour compounds from soiled clothing (socks and T-shirts), pre- and post washing, at low temperature (20°C). Six volatile compounds (VCs) (i.e. butyric acid, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone and 2-octanone) were identified. After sensory evaluation of soiled garments they were subjected to laundering with non-perfumed washing powder. The efficiency of the laundering process was evaluated by determining the reduction of each detected volatile compound (VC) post-wash (damp) for socks and T-shirts; VC concentration reductions of between 16 and 100% were noted, irrespective of sample type. Additionally the T-shirt study considered the change in VC concentration post-wash (dry) i.e. after the drying process at ambient temperature. Overall VC concentration reductions of between 25 and 98% were noted for T-shirt samples pre-wash to post-wash (dry). Finally, a potential biochemical metabolic pathway for the formation of malodour compounds associated with bacteria in axillary sweat is proposed.

Concepts: Bacteria, Metabolism, Mass spectrometry, Volatile organic compound, Volatile, Clothing, T-shirt, Laundry

29

In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan’s collapse.

Concepts: Mexico, Textile, Gulf of Mexico, Mesoamerica, Mexico City, Aztec, Lake Texcoco, Clothing

28

The pursuit of harmonic combination of technology and fashion intrinsically points to the development of smart garments. Herein, we present an all-solid tailorable energy textile possessing integrated function of simultaneous solar energy harvesting and storage, and we call it tailorable textile device. Our technique makes it possible to tailor the multifunctional textile into any designed shape without impairing its performance and produce stylish smart energy garments for wearable self-powering system with enhanced user experience and more room for fashion design. The “threads” (fiber electrodes) featuring tailorability and knittability can be large-scale fabricated and then woven into energy textiles. The fiber supercapacitor with merits of tailorability, ultrafast charging capability, and ultrahigh bending-resistance is used as the energy storage module, while an all-solid dye-sensitized solar cell textile is used as the solar energy harvesting module. Our textile sample can be fully charged to 1.2 V in 17 s by self-harvesting solar energy and fully discharged in 78 s at a discharge current density of 0.1 mA.

Concepts: Electric charge, Solar cell, Energy conversion, Textile, Solar energy, Solar power, Clothing, Felt

28

Synthetic textiles can shed numerous microfibers during conventional washing, but evaluating environmental consequences as well as source-control strategies requires understanding mass releases. Polyester apparel accounts for a large proportion of the polyester market, and synthetic jackets represent the broadest range in apparel construction, allowing for potential changes in manufacturing as a mitigation measure to reduce microfiber release during laundering. Here, detergent-free washing experiments were conducted and replicated in both front- and top-load conventional home machines for five new and mechanically-aged jackets or sweaters: four from one name-brand clothing manufacturer (three majority polyester fleece, and one nylon shell with non-woven polyester insulation) and one off-brand (100% polyester fleece). Wash water was filtered to recover two size fractions (>333 μm and between 20 and 333 μm); filters were then imaged and microfiber masses were calculated. Across all treatments, the recovered microfiber mass per garment ranged from approximately 0 to 2 grams, or exceeding 0.3% of the unwashed garment mass. Microfiber masses from top-load machines were approximately 7 times those from front-load machines; garments mechanically aged via 24-hour continuous wash had increased mass release under the same wash protocol as new garments. When comparing to published wastewater treatment plant influent characterization and microfiber removal studies, washing synthetic jackets or sweaters as per this study would account for most microfibers entering the environment.

Concepts: Mass, Sewage treatment, Textile, Clothing, Felt, Laundry, Button

28

The ability of a fabric to transfer moisture is referred to as ‘wicking’, and an increase in this property may have benefits in terms of comfort as well thermoregulation. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in the context of sporting type activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess whether comfort, thermal physiological parameters and physical performance can be impacted by the garment that is utilized. 10 men (age: 27.5 ± 4.4; height: 169.3 ± 14.2cm; weight: 80.05 ±10.87kg) and 10 women (age: 26.8 ± 3.7; height: 166.6 ± 4.46cm; weight: 64.63 ± 4.49kg) volunteered to participate in the study. A within-group, crossover, counterbalanced design was utilized that included the Illinois Agility Run (IAR) as well as the Multi Stage Fitness Test (MSFT). The IAR was also performed whilst wearing protective padding. The protocol was completed on two occasions, once while wearing cotton © and again while wearing a polyester (P) garment. Questionnaires referring to sensations of various components of comfort were completed after each test. The P garment provided significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater comfort in men and women following both the IAR and the MSFT. The P garment led to significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved performance during the IAR in women. The P garment also provided significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater body mass loss during the protocol in women. This study demonstrated dramatic increases in the comfort of polyester garments, including while using protective equipment. This study also discovered the influence of polyester garments on anaerobic tasks, as well as revealing dramatic sex differences, where women appear to be much more sensitive to the benefits of polyester garments. Strength and conditioning coaches should be aware of the dramatic impact of garment choice, in aerobic and aerobic tasks, particularly in women.

Concepts: Gender, Textile, Anaerobic exercise, Clothing, Felt, The Dramatics, High-visibility clothing, Temple garment