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Concept: Clitoris


Does the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology-European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE-ESGE) classification of female genital tract malformations significantly increase the frequency of septate uterus diagnosis relative to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) classification?

Concepts: Human, Male, Reproduction, Female, Reproductive system, Female reproductive system, Clitoris, Sexual reproduction


Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients.

Concepts: Human, Gender, Culture, Anthropology, Clitoris, Sex organ, Sexual differentiation, Genital modification and mutilation


Women who are contemplating any form of female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) are likely to seek information from provider websites. The aim of this study is to examine the breadth, depth and quality of clinical information communicated to women on 10 popular sites and to discuss the implications of the results.

Concepts: Woman, World Wide Web, Communication, Website, Breadth-first search, Clitoris


Complex foldings of the vaginal wall are unique to some cetaceans and artiodactyls and are of unknown function(s). The patterns of vaginal length and cumulative vaginal fold length were assessed in relation to body length and to each other in a phylogenetic context to derive insights into functionality. The reproductive tracts of 59 female cetaceans (20 species, 6 families) were dissected. Phylogenetically-controlled reduced major axis regressions were used to establish a scaling trend for the female genitalia of cetaceans. An unparalleled level of vaginal diversity within a mammalian order was found. Vaginal folds varied in number and size across species, and vaginal fold length was positively allometric with body length. Vaginal length was not a significant predictor of vaginal fold length. Functional hypotheses regarding the role of vaginal folds and the potential selection pressures that could lead to evolution of these structures are discussed. Vaginal folds may present physical barriers, which obscure the pathway of seawater and/or sperm travelling through the vagina. This study contributes broad insights to the evolution of reproductive morphology and aquatic adaptations and lays the foundation for future functional morphology analyses.

Concepts: Natural selection, Biology, Species, Reproductive system, Clitoris, Vagina, Cetacea, Cetartiodactyla


This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male’s glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause “vaginal” orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Human sexuality, Clitoris, Vagina, Orgasm, Penis, Sexual arousal, Erogenous zone


INTRODUCTION: Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman’s first masturbation. METHODS: A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. RESULTS: VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women’s first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Uterus, Clitoris, Vagina, Orgasm, Penis, Vulva, Sexual arousal


We describe a rare case of clitoromegaly due to a large clitoral cyst that occurred spontaneously without any declared previous female genital mutilation. The cyst was excised successfully with good cosmetic results.

Concepts: Reproductive system, Female reproductive system, Clitoris, Epidermoid cyst, Vulva, Sex organ, Female genital cutting, Clitoromegaly


We quantified vaginal lactobacilli and determined their relationship with genital HIV-1 shedding and found a significant negative association between reduced quantity of lactobacilli and cervical HIV-1 viral load (r(2) = - 0.8900, P < 0.01), which may have implications of increased chances of sexual transmission of HIV-1 and genital infections.

Concepts: HIV, HIV/AIDS, Viral load, Sexual intercourse, Bacteria, Female reproductive system, Cytomegalovirus, Clitoris


Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia and/or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other nontherapeutic reasons.

Concepts: Uterus, Clitoris, Penis, Vulva, Sex organ, Female genital cutting, Genital modification and mutilation


BACKGROUND: We present a rare case involving severe hypertrophy of the labia majora. This 39-year-old married woman developed a clinically noticeable bilateral lipodystrophy of her labia majora following the administration of chronic antiretroviral therapy. Different combination drug regimens that included drugs like Crixivan(®), Epivir(®), and Zerit(®) were administered to the patient from 1998 to 2005. The patient is currently on a single drug regimen of Atripla(®) with the disease under control and no other comorbidities. The severity of the pubic protuberance created an appearance resembling male genitalia, even when covered by underwear. This anatomical abnormality obviously impaired her social life and forced her to avoid wearing tight pants, swimming garments, and tight clothes in general. She also avoided any sexual activity. METHODS: Her pubic hair was shaved. Crural creases and vulvar mucosa were marked in order not to be violated. The estimated amount of skin and fat to be removed was marked. Intraoperative tailor-tacking suturing was used to mark the extent of the resection of the labia majora. Sutures were left in place to verify the accurate tension of the remaining skin. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anesthesia. Labial skin resection was performed by sharp dissection. Electrocautery was then used to excise the lobulated fat accumulation. Two layers of 3/0 Vicryl(®) sutures were used in the lax subcutaneous tissue. 4/0 Vicryl(®) rapide was used on the skin to approximate wound edges. Suction drains were left in place for 48 h to reduce the dead space and to manage postoperative bleeding. The patient was instructed to keep ice and compression pads on the area for the first 24 h and to keep the area clean. This was followed by the application of antibiotic ointment two times a day on the wounds to avoid blood crust formation and to keep the skin soft. RESULTS: Stitches were removed on POD 14 after an overall uneventful postoperative course. The sensitivity of the labia majora’s interior aspect was preserved, even initially. With the legs slightly open, the labia majora just covered the entrance to the vagina. The clitoris and labia minora became visible again, restoring a normal anatomical appearance. Moderate edema was observed for 4 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSION: The surgical technique used provided an excellent result according to the patient, who regained her self-confidence and started having a normal sexual life again. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Clitoris, Vagina, Vulva, Sex organ, Labia majora, Labia minora, Pubic hair