SciCombinator

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Concept: Clementine

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Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes-a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes-and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild ‘mandarin’ diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

Concepts: Citrus, Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Pomelo, Mandarin orange, Clementine

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Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 plant-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings.

Concepts: Ethanol, Citrus, Orange, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Tangor

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The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (CFresh), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry.

Concepts: Citrus, English-language films, Fruit, Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine, Mandarin orange, Clementine

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The volatile profiles of fruit peels and juice sacs from 108 citrus accessions representing seven species were analyzed. Using GC-MS 162 and 107 compounds were determined in the peels and juice sacs, respectively. In the peels, monoterpene alcohols were accumulated in loose-skin mandarins; clementine tangerines and papedas were rich in sesquiterpene alcohols, sesquiterpenes, monoterpene alcohols and monoterpene aldehydes. β-pinene and sabinene were specifically accumulated in 4 of 5 lemon germplasms. Furthermore, concentrations of 34 distinctive compounds were selected to best represent the volatile profiles of seven species for HCA analysis, and the clustering results were in agreement with classic citrus taxonomy. Comparison of profiles from different growing seasons and production areas indicated that environmental factors play important roles in volatile metabolism. In addition, a few citrus germplasms that accumulated certain compounds were determined as promising breeding materials. Notably, volatile biosynthesis via MVA pathway in C. ichangensis ‘Huaihua’ was enhanced.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Tangerine, Lemon, Yuzu, Mandarin orange, Clementine

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Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. This study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (C. aurantium), one blood orange (C. sinensis), one lime (C. limonia), one clementine (C. clementina) and one satsuma (C. unshiu).

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Tangor

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Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Standard Model, Tangerine, Quantum chromodynamics, Mandarin orange, Clementine

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Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn levels in the citrus reference samples were found to exceed the maximum reported in one or both TDS surveys. Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn plant-soil transfer factor (TF) values were < 1 for all agricultural samples from both Dee and reference sites, suggesting relatively poor transfer of these metals from soil to plant. In the case of Cd, TF values for Dee pasture grass and citrus fruit samples were 0.14 and 0.73, respectively; lucerne and lucerne hay from both Dee and reference sites gave TF = 10, suggesting some potential risk to cattle, although this conclusion is tentative because Cd levels were close to or less than the detection limit. TF values for S in lucerne, lucerne hay, pasture grass and mandarin oranges from Dee sites were 18, 14, 3 and 3.6, respectively, indicating that S in soil was readily available to plant or fruit. Sulfur in pasture grass and citrus fruit (TF = 11 for both) was apparently more bioavailable at the reference sites than at the Dee sites (TF = 3.0 for pasture grass; TF = 3.6 for citrus fruit).

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Tangor

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Mandarins constitute a large, diverse and important group within the Citrus family. Hereby, we analyzed the aroma volatiles compositions of 13 mandarin varieties belonging to seven genetically different natural subgroups that included common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi).

Concepts: Citrus, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Tangor, Satsuma

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First report of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, Closterovirus) in Morocco dates back to 1961 in collections of citrus varieties. An exhaustive survey of citrus in the North of the country in 2009 revealed that CTV was spread all over the citrus production area. We attempted to evaluate the relative contribution of different aphid species in the spread of CTV disease in a Citrus reticulata orchard at the Loukkous region during two years (2012 and 2013). The overall CTV incidence estimated in the experimental site increased from 17.8% in 2012 to 31.15% in 2013. The most abundant aphid species colonising clementine trees was Aphis spiraecola and A.gossypii. Both aphid species reached their maximum peaks during the spring season. The rate of viruliferous aphids, estimated by real-time RT-PCR of single aphid, revealed that 35.4% of winged A. gossypii and 28.8% of winged A. spiraecola were viruliferous, confirming a high inoculum pressure in the area surrounding the experimental site. The aphid species Toxoptera citricida, which is able to transmit the aggressive isolates of CTV, was not found in the Loukkous region. The study of the spatial distribution of the CTV showed that in general, the disease was randomly distributed in the field. Overall, the results seem to indicate that A. spiraecola may be considered as the major aphid species contributing to CTV spread in our experimental conditions. The prevalence of mild strains in the region and the high level of aphid flight activity could explain the rapid evolution of CTV incidence in the experimental area. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Citrus, Hemiptera, All rights reserved, Copyright, Aphid, Citrus tristeza virus, Mandarin orange, Clementine

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We evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex. Tan), Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and tangelo (Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi). Consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide diversity in flavor preferences among mandarin varieties and subgroups. Furthermore, descriptive flavor-analysis tests conducted with the aid of a trained sensory panel revealed that the 9 most preferred varieties had similar flavor profiles, characterized by high sweetness, moderate to low acidity levels, low bitterness and gumminess, strong fruity and mandarin flavor, and high juiciness. The average total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels among the highly preferred varieties were 13.1% and 1.1%, respectively. In contrast, the 8 least preferred varieties were either too sour or gummy or had low levels of sweetness, fruity, or mandarin flavor, and either high acidity levels (>1.4%) or low TSS levels (<12.0%). Pearson tests revealed significant positive correlations between flavor acceptance and perceptions of sweetness, fruitiness, and mandarin flavor, and negative correlations with acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between highly accepted varieties that were tightly correlated with high TSS levels and perceptions of sweetness fruitiness and mandarin flavor, as compared with the least accepted varieties that were correlated with high acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess.

Concepts: Citrus, Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine, Rutaceae, Mandarin orange, Clementine, Satsuma