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Concept: Clavicle fracture


This study reports the safety, efficacy and functional and patient centred outcomes of the largest published series of patients treated with the Rockwood clavicle pin (intramedullary device) to date.

Concepts: Patient, Clavicle fracture


Malunion after displaced fractures of the clavicle can result in varying degrees of scapular malalignment and potentially scapular winging. The purpose of our study was to quantify the scapular malalignment in patients with midshaft clavicle malunions showing scapular winging.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Clavicle fracture, Clavicle


Open reduction internal fixation technique has been generally accepted for treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures. Both superior and anterior clavicle plates have been reported in clinical or biomechanical researches, while presently the spiral clavicle plate design has been introduced improved biomechanical behavior over conventional designs. In order to objectively realize the multi-directional biomechanical performances among the three geometries for clavicle plate designs, a current conceptual finite element study has been conducted with identical cross-sectional features for clavicle plates. The conceptual superior, anterior, and spiral clavicle plate models were constructed for virtual reduction and fixation to an OTA 15-B1.3 midshaft transverse fracture of clavicle. Mechanical load cases including cantilever bending, axial compression, inferior bending, and axial torsion have been applied for confirming the multi-directional structural stability and implant safety in biomechanical perspective. Results revealed that the anterior clavicle plate model represented lowest plate stress under all loading cases. The superior clavicle plate model showed greater axial compressive stiffness, while the anterior clavicle plate model performed greater rigidity under cantilever bending load. Three model represented similar structural stiffness under axial torsion. Played as a transition structure between superior and anterior clavicle plate, the spiral clavicle plate model revealed comparable results with acceptable multi-directional biomechanical behavior. The concept of spiral clavicle plate design is worth considering in practical application in clinics. Implant safety should be further investigated by evidences in future mechanical tests and clinical observations.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Clavicle fracture, Elasticity, Clavicle, Torsion, Superiority complex


Historically, management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures has consisted of nonsurgical treatment. However, recent literature has supported surgical repair of displaced and shortened clavicle fractures. Multiple options exist for surgical fixation, including plate and intramedullary (IM) fixation. IM fixation has the potential advantages of a smaller incision and decreased dissection and soft-tissue exposure. For the last two decades, the use of Rockwood and Hagie pins represented the most popular form of IM fixation, but concerns exist regarding stability and complications. The use of alternative IM implants, such as Kirschner wires, titanium elastic nails, and cannulated screws, also has been described in limited case series. However, concerns persist regarding the complications associated with the use of these implants, including implant failure, migration, skin complications, and construct stability. Second-generation IM implants have been developed to reduce the limitations of earlier IM devices. Although anatomic and clinical studies have supported IM fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures, further research is necessary to determine the optimal fixation method.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Implants, Anatomy, Human anatomy, Dental implant, Clavicle fracture, Kirschner wire


Clavicle fractures may occur in all age groups, and 70%-80% of clavicle fractures occur in the midshaft. Many methods for treating midshaft clavicular fractures have been reported and remain controversial. To provide some guidance for clinical treatment, 30 artificial polymethyl methacrylate models of the clavicle were sewn obliquely at the midshaft to simulate the most common type of clavicular fractures, and the fracture models were divided into five groups randomly and were fixed as follows: the reconstruction plates were placed at the superior position of the fracture model (R-S group), the reconstruction plates were placed at the anteroinferior position of the fracture model (R-AI group), the locking plates were placed at the superior position (L-S group), the locking plates were placed at the anteroinferior position (L-AI group); and the control models were unfixed (control group). The strain gauges were attached to the bone surface near the fracture fragments, and then, the biomechanical properties of the specimens were measured using the compression test, torsion test and three-point bending test. The results showed that plate fixation can provide a stable construct to help with fracture healing and is the preferred method in the treatment of clavicle fractures. The locking plate provides the best biomechanical stability when placed at the anteroinferior position, and this surgical method can reduce the operation time and postoperative complications; thus, it would be a better choice in clinical practice.

Concepts: Bone, Bone fracture, Fracture, Group, Biomechanics, Clavicle fracture, Reconstruction era of the United States, Mechanics


A 19-year-old man presented with a congenital skin lesion on the left clavicular region. Closely arranged, dilated follicular openings with keratinous plugs resembling classic comedones were distributed linearly along the left clavicle and extending to the upper back.

Concepts: Clavicle fracture, Upper limb, Tetrapod, Clavicle, Nevus comedonicus syndrome, Nevus comedonicus



An important consideration when counselling patients with midshaft clavicle fractures is whether operative treatment of non-union, if it develops after non-operative treatment, is associated with higher complication rate than acute fracture fixation. The aim of this study is to compare complications and re-operations after open reduction and plate fixation for acute midshaft clavicle fractures versus non-unions. The study was retrospective. There were 90 patients in the acute fixation group and 20 patients in the non-union group. The mean follow-up was 8 and 15 months, respectively, Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether ‘non-union surgery’ was a predictor of complications and re-operations. Of 90 patients, 23 had complications in acute fixation group. Of 20, 7 developed 8 complications in the non-union group (p = 0.4). Of 90, 12 required re-operations in the acute fixation group compared to 5/20 requiring 7 re-operations in the non-union group (p = 0.19). When any complication or re-operation was considered, ‘non-union surgery’ was not significant predictor for complications (p = 0.78) or re-operations (p = 0.99). The complication and re-operation rates were not higher after non-union surgery compared to acute fracture fixation and were mostly related to persistent delayed or non-union, rather than operative complications. When counselling patients about treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures, a ‘higher complication rate after surgery for non-union, should it happen’ should not be an argument against non-operative treatment.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Bone fracture, Fracture, Surgery, Clavicle fracture, Acute accent, Logistic function


Fractures of the distal clavicle represent 15-30% of all clavicle fractures. The local osseoligamentous anatomy and deforming forces result in increased risk of delayed union and nonunion than fractures in other parts of the clavicle. These factors also contribute to challenges in fracture repair. Understanding these injuries and their imaging features enhances care and ensures patients are directed to appropriate management. We review the anatomy of the distal clavicle and surrounding ligaments, options for radiographic evaluation, relevant classification systems, and current concepts in management. Illustrative examples of specialized views are provided. Pediatric acromioclavicular joint pseudosubluxation is also reviewed, with findings specific to that injury.

Concepts: Bone, Physician, Management, Synovial joint, Clavicle fracture, Clavicle, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromion