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Concept: Clavicle fracture


This study reports the safety, efficacy and functional and patient centred outcomes of the largest published series of patients treated with the Rockwood clavicle pin (intramedullary device) to date.

Concepts: Patient, Clavicle fracture


Malunion after displaced fractures of the clavicle can result in varying degrees of scapular malalignment and potentially scapular winging. The purpose of our study was to quantify the scapular malalignment in patients with midshaft clavicle malunions showing scapular winging.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Clavicle fracture, Clavicle


Open reduction internal fixation technique has been generally accepted for treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures. Both superior and anterior clavicle plates have been reported in clinical or biomechanical researches, while presently the spiral clavicle plate design has been introduced improved biomechanical behavior over conventional designs. In order to objectively realize the multi-directional biomechanical performances among the three geometries for clavicle plate designs, a current conceptual finite element study has been conducted with identical cross-sectional features for clavicle plates. The conceptual superior, anterior, and spiral clavicle plate models were constructed for virtual reduction and fixation to an OTA 15-B1.3 midshaft transverse fracture of clavicle. Mechanical load cases including cantilever bending, axial compression, inferior bending, and axial torsion have been applied for confirming the multi-directional structural stability and implant safety in biomechanical perspective. Results revealed that the anterior clavicle plate model represented lowest plate stress under all loading cases. The superior clavicle plate model showed greater axial compressive stiffness, while the anterior clavicle plate model performed greater rigidity under cantilever bending load. Three model represented similar structural stiffness under axial torsion. Played as a transition structure between superior and anterior clavicle plate, the spiral clavicle plate model revealed comparable results with acceptable multi-directional biomechanical behavior. The concept of spiral clavicle plate design is worth considering in practical application in clinics. Implant safety should be further investigated by evidences in future mechanical tests and clinical observations.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Clavicle fracture, Elasticity, Clavicle, Torsion, Superiority complex


Historically, management of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures has consisted of nonsurgical treatment. However, recent literature has supported surgical repair of displaced and shortened clavicle fractures. Multiple options exist for surgical fixation, including plate and intramedullary (IM) fixation. IM fixation has the potential advantages of a smaller incision and decreased dissection and soft-tissue exposure. For the last two decades, the use of Rockwood and Hagie pins represented the most popular form of IM fixation, but concerns exist regarding stability and complications. The use of alternative IM implants, such as Kirschner wires, titanium elastic nails, and cannulated screws, also has been described in limited case series. However, concerns persist regarding the complications associated with the use of these implants, including implant failure, migration, skin complications, and construct stability. Second-generation IM implants have been developed to reduce the limitations of earlier IM devices. Although anatomic and clinical studies have supported IM fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures, further research is necessary to determine the optimal fixation method.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Implants, Anatomy, Human anatomy, Dental implant, Clavicle fracture, Kirschner wire


Clavicle fractures may occur in all age groups, and 70%-80% of clavicle fractures occur in the midshaft. Many methods for treating midshaft clavicular fractures have been reported and remain controversial. To provide some guidance for clinical treatment, 30 artificial polymethyl methacrylate models of the clavicle were sewn obliquely at the midshaft to simulate the most common type of clavicular fractures, and the fracture models were divided into five groups randomly and were fixed as follows: the reconstruction plates were placed at the superior position of the fracture model (R-S group), the reconstruction plates were placed at the anteroinferior position of the fracture model (R-AI group), the locking plates were placed at the superior position (L-S group), the locking plates were placed at the anteroinferior position (L-AI group); and the control models were unfixed (control group). The strain gauges were attached to the bone surface near the fracture fragments, and then, the biomechanical properties of the specimens were measured using the compression test, torsion test and three-point bending test. The results showed that plate fixation can provide a stable construct to help with fracture healing and is the preferred method in the treatment of clavicle fractures. The locking plate provides the best biomechanical stability when placed at the anteroinferior position, and this surgical method can reduce the operation time and postoperative complications; thus, it would be a better choice in clinical practice.

Concepts: Bone, Bone fracture, Fracture, Group, Biomechanics, Clavicle fracture, Reconstruction era of the United States, Mechanics


A 19-year-old man presented with a congenital skin lesion on the left clavicular region. Closely arranged, dilated follicular openings with keratinous plugs resembling classic comedones were distributed linearly along the left clavicle and extending to the upper back.

Concepts: Clavicle fracture, Upper limb, Tetrapod, Clavicle, Nevus comedonicus syndrome, Nevus comedonicus



The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this study was to investigate if three commonly scientifically used measurement methods were interchangeable to each other.

Concepts: Clavicle fracture, Units of measurement


Within traumatology a common indication for acute surgery of fractured clavicles is bone shortening over 2 cm. This indication is among but a few indications; which are recommended to be treated operatively within the very first weeks after a fracture. Theoretically clavicle fractures could become less shortened over time due to decreasing muscle pull. If this reduced shortening does indeed happen, some patients with initial bone shortening over 2 cm could perhaps be treated conservatively? However, it is unknown what happens to the length of the clavicle within the first weeks after a fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate if the length of the fresh fractured clavicles changes within the first three weeks.

Concepts: Bone, Bone fracture, Fracture, Medical terms, Clavicle fracture, Clavicle, Indication


Patients who undergo open reduction and internal fixation of distal clavicle fractures have a high rate of hardware removal and persistence of symptoms, particularly when attempting to return to high-demand activities. This study evaluated the outcomes of military servicemembers after surgical treatment of distal clavicle fractures. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of active duty servicemembers who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of Neer type II distal clavicle fractures between October 17, 2007, and July 20, 2012, with a minimum of 2-year clinical follow-up. The electronic health record was queried to extract demographic features and clinical outcomes, primarily persistence of pain, removal of hardware, and postoperative return to high-level activity. A total of 48 patients were identified, with mean follow-up of 3.8 years. A total of 44% of patients underwent subsequent hardware removal. All fractures achieved radiographic union, and 35% of patients had persistence of symptoms. Patients who were treated with hook plating had a 3.64-fold higher risk of persistence of pain compared with those treated with conventional plating techniques. A total of 35% of patients successfully returned to full military function and completed a postoperative military deployment. Coracoclavicular reconstruction did not improve outcomes. Persistence of symptoms and requirement for hardware removal were not associated with the rate of postoperative deployment. Achieving excellent functional outcomes with open reduction and internal fixation of distal clavicle fractures remains a challenge. Where possible, conventional plate fixation should be considered over hook plate fixation. However, subsequent hardware removal and continuing shoulder pain do not preclude a return to high-level activity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

Concepts: Retrospective, Orthopedic surgery, Clavicle fracture, Shoulder, Electronic health record, Military of the United States, Clavicle