Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cimino fistula


Vascular access problems are a daily occurrence in hemodialysis units. Loss of patency of the vascular access limits hemodialysis delivery and may result in underdialysis that leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite the known superiority of autogenous fistulae over grafts, autogenous fistulae also suffer from frequent development of stenosis and subsequent thrombosis. International guidelines recommend programmes for detection of stenosis and consequent correction in an attempt to reduce the rate of thrombosis. Physical examination of autogenous fistulae has recently been revisited as an important element in the assessment of stenotic lesions. Prospective observational studies have consistently demonstrated that physical examination performed by trained physicians is an accurate method for the diagnosis of fistula stenosis and, therefore, should be part of all surveillance protocols of the vascular access. However, to optimize hemodialysis access surveillance, hemodialysis practitioners may need to improve their skills in performing physical examination. The purpose of this article is to review the basics and drawbacks of physical examination for dialysis arteriovenous fistulae and to provide the reader with its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of arteriovenous fistula dysfunction, based on current published literature.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Renal replacement therapy, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula


Hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are suboptimally used primarily due to problems with maturation, early thrombosis, and patient nonacceptance. An endovascular approach to fistula creation without open surgery offers another hemodialysis vascular access option.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula


To evaluate safety and efficacy of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) created with a thermal resistance anastomosis device.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Anal fistula, Cimino fistula


An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the recommended vascular access for hemodialysis (HD). Previous studies have not examined the resources and costs associated with creating and maintaining AVFs.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Anal fistula, Cimino fistula


Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred form of hemodialysis vascular access, but maturation failures occur frequently, often resulting in prolonged catheter use. We sought to characterize AVF maturation in a national sample of prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States.

Concepts: United States, Hemodialysis, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Anal fistula, Cimino fistula


Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred access for hemodialysis (HD) yet they are underutilized. Cannulation of the fistula is a procedure requiring significant skill development and refinement and if not done well can have negative consequences for patients. The nurses' approach, attitude and skill with cannulation impacts greatly on the patient experience. Complications from miscannulation or an inability to needle fistulas can result in the increased use of central venous catheters. Some nurses remain in a state of a ‘perpetual novice’ resulting in a viscous cycle of negative patient consequences (bruising, pain), further influencing patients' decisions not to pursue a fistula or abandon cannulation.

Concepts: Patient, Hemodialysis, Patience, Central venous catheter, Catheter, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula


Arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) created by conventional surgical techniques are associated with suboptimal short- and long-term patency. This study investigated the feasibility of creating fistulae with a percutaneous system and evaluated the utility of percutaneous AVFs (pAVFs) in providing hemodialysis access.

Concepts: Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Anal fistula, Cimino fistula


Hemodialysis patient survival is dependent on the availability of a reliable vascular access. In clinical practice, procedures for vascular access cannulation vary from clinic to clinic. We investigated the impact of cannulation technique on arteriovenous fistula and graft survival. Based on an April 2009 cross-sectional survey of vascular access cannulation practices in 171 dialysis units, a cohort of patients with corresponding vascular access survival information was selected for follow-up ending March 2012. Of the 10,807 patients enrolled in the original survey, access survival data were available for 7058 patients from nine countries. Of these, 90.6% had an arteriovenous fistula and 9.4% arteriovenous graft. Access needling was by area technique for 65.8%, rope-ladder for 28.2%, and buttonhole for 6%. The most common direction of puncture was antegrade with bevel up (43.1%). A Cox regression model was applied, adjusted for within-country effects, and defining as events the need for creation of a new vascular access. Area cannulation was associated with a significantly higher risk of access failure than rope-ladder or buttonhole. Retrograde direction of the arterial needle with bevel down was also associated with an increased failure risk. Patient application of pressure during cannulation appeared more favorable for vascular access longevity than not applying pressure or using a tourniquet. The higher risk of failure associated with venous pressures under 100 or over 150 mm Hg should open a discussion on limits currently considered acceptable.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.96.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Dialysis, Proportional hazards models, Hospital, Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula


Clinical practice guidelines recommend an arteriovenous fistula as the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis, but quantitative associations between vascular access type and various clinical outcomes remain controversial. We performed a systematic review of cohort studies to evaluate the associations between type of vascular access (arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter) and risk for death, infection, and major cardiovascular events. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and article reference lists and extracted data describing study design, participants, vascular access type, clinical outcomes, and risk for bias. We identified 3965 citations, of which 67 (62 cohort studies comprising 586,337 participants) met our inclusion criteria. In a random effects meta-analysis, compared with persons with fistulas, those individuals using catheters had higher risks for all-cause mortality (risk ratio=1.53, 95% CI=1.41-1.67), fatal infections (2.12, 1.79-2.52), and cardiovascular events (1.38, 1.24-1.54). Similarly, compared with persons with grafts, those individuals using catheters had higher risks for mortality (1.38, 1.25-1.52), fatal infections (1.49, 1.15-1.93), and cardiovascular events (1.26, 1.11-1.43). Compared with persons with fistulas, those individuals with grafts had increased all-cause mortality (1.18, 1.09-1.27) and fatal infection (1.36, 1.17-1.58), but we did not detect a difference in the risk for cardiovascular events (1.07, 0.95-1.21). The risk for bias, especially selection bias, was high. In conclusion, persons using catheters for hemodialysis seem to have the highest risks for death, infections, and cardiovascular events compared with other vascular access types, and patients with usable fistulas have the lowest risk.

Concepts: Cohort study, Clinical trial, Hemodialysis, Central venous catheter, Catheter, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula


Primary arteriovenous fistula arterio venous fistula (AVF) formation has proven to be the best and optimal vascular access for the majority of haemodialysis patients. At present there are limited data to suggest which haemodynamic parameters most correlate with the likelihood of early failure. The aim of this study is to identify the haemodynamic predictors of early failure, hence identify which fistulae may benefit from timely pre-emptive intervention.

Concepts: Blood, Hemodialysis, Hematology, Arteriovenous fistula, Fistula, Cimino fistula