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Concept: Cholecystitis


Therapy with appropriate antimicrobial agents is an important component in the management of patients with acute cholangitis and/or acute cholecystitis. In the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13), we recommend antimicrobial agents that are suitable from a global perspective for management of these infections. These recommendations focus primarily on empirical therapy (presumptive therapy), provided before the infecting isolates are identified. Such therapy depends upon knowledge of both local microbial epidemiology and patient-specific factors that affect selection of appropriate agents. These patient-specific factors include prior contact with the health care system, and we separate community-acquired versus healthcare-associated infections because of the higher risk of resistance in the latter. Selection of agents for community-acquired infections is also recommended on the basis of severity (grades I-III). Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Medicine, Microbiology, Antimicrobial, Ascending cholangitis, Cholecystitis


While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with gallstones, frequency of severe cholecystitis and cholangitis, onset of cholecystitis and cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and medications, mortality rate, and recurrence rate. The primary etiology of acute cholangitis/cholecystitis is the presence of stones. Next to stones, the most significant etiology of acute cholangitis is benign/malignant stenosis of the biliary tract. On the other hand, there is another type of acute cholecystitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, in which stones are not involved as causative factors. Risk factors for acute acalculous cholecystitis include surgery, trauma, burn, and parenteral nutrition. After 2000, the mortality rate of acute cholangitis has been about 10 %, while that of acute cholecystitis has generally been less than 1 %. After the publication of TG07, diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria were standardized, and the distribution of cases according to severity and comparison of clinical data among target populations have become more subjective. The concept of healthcare-associated infections is important in the current treatment of infection. The treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis substantially differs from that of community-acquired infections. Cholangitis and cholecystitis as healthcare-associated infections are clearly described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13).Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Epidemiology, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Ascending cholangitis, Cholecystitis


BACKGROUND: As life expectancy rises worldwide and the prevalence of gallstones increases with age, the number of very elderly patients requiring treatment for gallstone diseases is increasing. The aim of this study was to compare the results of cholecystectomy in patients 80 years or older according to different clinical presentations. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 81 patients 80 years or older. Indications for surgery were stratified into three groups: outpatients (symptomatic chronic cholecystitis), inpatients (complicated gallstone diseases), and urgent patients (acute cholecystitis). Data analysis included age, sex, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, indication for surgery, length of hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 83.9 (range 80-94 years); there were 34 (42%) men. Thirty patients were operated on for acute cholecystitis. Patients in the urgency group significantly required the ICU more often, required a longer hospital stay, and had more complications, with 32% mortality. No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, with both groups presenting low morbidity, no mortality, and the same postoperative length of stay. CONCLUSION: More than 80% of the patients were operated on because of complicated gallstone disease. Although the outcomes of patients undergoing semielective cholecystectomy were similar to those of patients treated as outpatients, patients operated with acute cholecystitis presented extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. Thus, we can only recommend that early elective cholecystectomy be performed in elderly patients as soon as they are found to have symptomatic gallstones. Also, further trials are required to elucidate the optimal management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients.

Concepts: Death, Mortality rate, Surgery, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Life expectancy, Gallstone, Cholecystitis



Since its publication in 2007, the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) have been widely adopted. The validation of TG07 conducted in terms of clinical practice has shown that the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis are highly reliable but that the definition of definite diagnosis is ambiguous. Discussion by the Tokyo Guidelines Revision Committee concluded that acute cholecystitis should be suspected when Murphy’s sign, local inflammatory findings in the gallbladder such as right upper quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness, and fever and systemic inflammatory reaction findings detected by blood tests are present but that definite diagnosis of acute cholecystitis can be made only on the basis of the imaging of ultrasonography, computed tomography or scintigraphy (HIDA scan). These proposed diagnostic criteria provided better specificity and accuracy rates than the TG07 diagnostic criteria. As for the severity assessment criteria in TG07, there is evidence that TG07 resulted in clarification of the concept of severe acute cholecystitis. Furthermore, there is evidence that severity assessment in TG07 has led to a reduction in the mean duration of hospital stay. As for the factors used to establish a moderate grade of acute cholecystitis, such as leukocytosis, ALP, old age, diabetes, being male, and delay in admission, no new strong evidence has been detected indicating that a change in the criteria used in TG07 is needed. Therefore, it was judged that the severity assessment criteria of TG07 could be applied in the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) with minor changes. TG13 presents new standards for the diagnosis, severity grading and management of acute cholecystitis.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Inflammation, Diagnosis, Medical imaging, Abdominal pain, Hepatology, Murphy's sign, Ascending cholangitis, Cholecystitis


Bundles that define mandatory items or procedures to be performed in clinical practice have been increasingly used in guidelines in recent years. Observance of bundles enables improvement of the prognosis of target diseases as well as guideline preparation. There were no bundles adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007, but the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) have adopted this useful tool. Items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been prepared in the practical guidelines and presented as management bundles. TG13 defined the mandatory items for the management of acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis. Critical parts of the bundles in TG13 include diagnostic process, severity assessment, transfer of patients if necessary, therapeutic approach, and time course. Their observance should improve the prognosis of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. When utilizing TG13 management bundles, further clinical research needs to be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes of the bundles. It is also expected that the present report will lead to evidence construction and contribute to further updating of the Tokyo Guidelines.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Present, Medicine, Clinical trial, Clinical research, Ascending cholangitis, Cholecystitis


Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis for which surgery is usually indicated. However, the heterogeneity of clinical presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. The variation in clinical presentation is influenced by both patient-dependent and disease-specific factors. A preoperative clinical scoring system designed to included patient-dependent and clinical factors might be a useful tool in clinical decision making.

Concepts: Decision making, Medical diagnosis, Decision theory, Decision making software, Physical examination, General surgery, Cholecystitis


Ninety percent of cases of acute calculous cholecystitis are of mild (grade I) or moderate (grade II) severity. Although the preoperative and intraoperative antibiotic management of acute calculous cholecystitis has been standardized, few data exist on the utility of postoperative antibiotic treatment.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Effectiveness,, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Cholecystitis


According to the Tokyo Guidelines, severity of acute cholecystitis is divided into three grades based on the degree of inflammation and the presence of organ dysfunction. These guidelines recommend grade I (mild) acute cholecystitis to be treated with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy and grade II (moderate) acute cholecystitis with delayed cholecystectomy. Yet, several studies have shown that, for acute cholecystitis in general, early cholecystectomy is superior to delayed cholecystectomy in terms of complication rate, duration of hospital stay and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of emergency cholecystectomy in patients with grade II acute cholecystitis. Based on our findings, we propose a revision of the Tokyo Guidelines.

Concepts: Time, Grade, Hospital, Inflammations, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Degree of a polynomial, Cholecystitis


Intravenous antibiotics are frequently used in the initial management of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC), although supportive care alone preceding delayed elective cholecystectomy may be sufficient. This systematic review assessed the success rate of antibiotics in the treatment of ACC.

Concepts: Medicine, Antibiotic resistance, Calculus, Antibiotic, Cholecystitis