SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cholecystectomy

27

27

Calculi in the cystic duct remnant are one of the causes of postcholecystectomy syndrome. A 36-year-old woman presented thrice to the casualty department with right upper quadrant pain at an interval of 2 months every time. Ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen was normal except for echoes in the gallbladder region may be clips. She was treated conservatively and discharged the first two times. The second time, the MR cholangiopancreatography was normal. She had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy with stent in situ outside elsewhere before presenting to us for the third time, which was removed after 6-weeks. The third time, she was taken up for laparoscopic stump exploration, which revealed a stone, which was the cause of her pain. To conclude, stump stone can be a possibility of post cholecystectomy syndrome even after 6 years, and surgeons should be aware of it.

Concepts: Abdomen, Gallbladder, Cholecystectomy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, Cystic duct, Postcholecystectomy syndrome

25

Abstract The current rate of bile duct injury (BDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is 0.4%, which is an unacceptable outcome. Several surgical approaches have been suggested to mitigate the occurrence of this dreaded complication. We propose a standardized approach, using Calot’s node as a critical anatomical landmark to guide gallbladder dissection and avoid BDI. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively gathered database of 907 laparoscopic cholecystectomies using this standardized approach in our practice over a 5-year period. To date we have had no BDI and no cystic duct leak. Therefore, we suggest identification of Calot’s node as an additional method to avoid BDI during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Concepts: Hepatology, Bile, Bile duct, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone, Common hepatic duct, Cystic duct

23

An expert recommendation conference was conducted to identify factors associated with adverse events during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the goal of deriving expert recommendations for the reduction of biliary and vascular injury. Nineteen hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeons from high-volume surgery centers in six countries comprised the Research Institute Against Cancer of the Digestive System (IRCAD) Recommendations Group. Systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase was conducted. Using nominal group technique, structured group meetings were held to identify key items for safer LC. Consensus was achieved when 80% of respondents ranked an item as 1 or 2 (Likert scale 1-4). Seventy-one IRCAD HPB course participants assessed the expert recommendations which were compared to responses of 37 general surgery course participants. The IRCAD recommendations were structured in seven statements. The key topics included exposure of the operative field, appropriate use of energy device and establishment of the critical view of safety (CVS), systematic preoperative imaging, cholangiogram and alternative techniques, role of partial and dome-down (fundus-first) cholecystectomy. Highest consensus was achieved on the importance of the CVS as well as dome-down technique and partial cholecystectomy as alternative techniques. The put forward IRCAD recommendations may help to promote safe surgical practice of LC and initiate specific training to avoid adverse events.

Concepts: Surgery, Surgeon, Digestion, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Likert scale, Prime number, Gallstone

9

Background:Concern exists regarding gallstones as an adverse event of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs; <800 kcal per day).Objective:To assess the risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospital care and/or cholecystectomy in a commercial weight loss program using VLCD or low-calorie diet (LCD).Design:A 1-year matched cohort study of consecutively enrolled adults in a commercial weight loss program conducted at 28 Swedish centers between 2006 and 2009. A 3-month weight loss phase of VLCD (500 kcal per day) or LCD (1200-1500 kcal per day) was followed by a 9-month weight maintenance phase. Matching (1:1) was performed by age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and gallstone history (n=3320:3320). Gallstone and cholecystectomy data were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register.Results:One-year weight loss was greater in the VLCD than in the LCD group (-11.1 versus -8.1 kg; adjusted difference, -2.8 kg, 95% CI -3.1 to -2.4; P<0.001). During 6361 person-years, 48 and 14 gallstones requiring hospital care occurred in the VLCD and LCD groups, respectively, (152 versus 44/10 000 person-years; hazard ratio, 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.3; P<0.001; number-needed-to-harm, 92, 95% CI 63-168; P<0.001). Of the 62 gallstone events, 38 (61%) resulted in cholecystectomy (29 versus 9; hazard ratio, 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8; P=0.003; number-needed-to-harm, 151, 95% CI 94-377; P<0.001). Adjusting for 3-month weight loss attenuated the hazard ratios, but the risk remained higher with VLCD than LCD for gallstones (2.5, 95% CI 1.3-5.1; P=0.009) and became borderline for cholecystectomy (2.2, 95% CI 0.9-5.2; P=0.08).Conclusion:The risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospitalization or cholecystectomy, albeit low, was 3-fold greater with VLCD than LCD during the 1-year commercial weight loss program.

Concepts: Hospital, Obesity, Surgery, Relative risk, Mass, Body mass index, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone

7

This paper introduces simulation-based re-enactment (SBR) as a novel method of documenting and studying the recent history of surgical practice. SBR aims to capture ways of surgical working that remain within living memory but have been superseded due to technical advances and changes in working patterns. Inspired by broader efforts in historical re-enactment and the use of simulation within surgical education, SBR seeks to overcome some of the weaknesses associated with text-based, surgeon-centred approaches to the history of surgery. The paper describes how we applied SBR to a previously common operation that is now rarely performed due to the introduction of keyhole surgery: open cholecystectomy or removal of the gall bladder. Key aspects of a 1980s operating theatre were recreated, and retired surgical teams (comprising surgeon, anaesthetist and theatre nurse) invited to re-enact, and educate surgical trainees in this procedure. Video recording, supplemented by pre- and post-re-enactment interviews, enabled the teams' conduct of this operation to be placed on the historical record. These recordings were then used to derive insights into the social and technical nature of surgical expertise, its distribution throughout the surgical team, and the members' tacit and frequently sub-conscious ways of working. While acknowledging some of the limitations of SBR, we argue that its utility to historians - as well as surgeons - merits its more extensive application.

Concepts: Surgery, Surgeon, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, History, Historical reenactment

7

In recent years, with widespread laparoscopic cholecystectomy and liver transplantation, complications involving the biliary system are increasing. All current techniques have a high risk of recurrence or high-morbidity.

Concepts: Digestive system, Liver, Hepatology, Bile, Bile duct, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Gallstone

5

The study aims to evaluate the methodological quality of publications relating to predicting the need of conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy and to describe identified prognostic factors.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy, Open surgery

4

Simulation-based training (SBT) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCCY) provides an opportunity for junior residents to learn the procedure in a safe, nonthreatening environment. Mental rehearsal (MR) has the potential of augmenting skill acquisition. This project investigated the correlation between MR of LCCY with performance on 2 different types of simulators: a procedural task (PT) training model and virtual reality (VR) machine.

Concepts: Psychology, Skill, Mind, Learning, Laparoscopic surgery, Object-oriented programming, Cholecystectomy, Virtual reality

3

We aimed to review our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the pediatric population to better understand the associated complications and outcomes.

Concepts: Laparoscopic surgery, Cholecystectomy