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Concept: Children

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This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields. Its adoption of an evidence-based therapeutic intervention philosophy has been associated with greater reductions in recidivism compared with punitive approaches prevalent in some countries worldwide, and it is therefore a superior approach to dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency.

Concepts: Childhood, Crime, Children, Psychiatry, Criminology, Juvenile delinquency, Conduct disorder, Juvenile delinquency in the United States

8

Data regarding the effects of backpack carriage on children’s body strains while walking are limited. This study measured the body posture, muscle activation, and subjective discomfort scores of 12 male schoolchildren (age: 12.3 (range 12.1-13.0) y, height: 151.3 (range 144.2-154.6) cm, weight: 46.6 (range 43.6-49.7) kg) carrying backpacks weighing 5%, 10%, and 15% of their respective body weights (BWs) and walking for 10 min on a treadmill. For each load, three positions along the spinal column (T7, T12, and L3) were examined. Participants carrying a backpack weighing 15% of BW exhibited higher head flexion, trunk flexion, and corresponding muscle activation, and a lower lumbosacral angle compared with those carrying loads of 5% and 10% of BW. The waist received the highest discomfort scores when the backpacks were carried at the L3 position. Conversely, the discomfort rating for the neck and shoulders where the highest when the backpack was at the T7 position; this high backpack position also caused more head flexion than the other two positions. For the musculoskeletal health of children, the findings suggest that carrying a school backpack weighing 15% of BW should be avoided, and carrying at the T12 position may be recommended for schoolboys.

Concepts: Mass, Child, Children, Flexion, Kilogram, Weight, Backpack, Luggage

3

To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren.

Concepts: Water, Socioeconomic status, Child, Sodium, Potassium, Children, Salt

3

The management of childhood asthma is often sub-optimal. Parents and other caregivers are primarily responsible for disease management and this responsibility includes communication with health professionals. The aim of this multi-perspective qualitative study was to explore the views of children, parents and health professionals to gain insight into the approach to clinical care in the management of childhood asthma. Interviews were held with nine parent-child (6-8 years) dyads, and 13 health professionals working in primary and secondary care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Three key themes emerged that were common to all data sets; (1) Child and parent awareness of symptoms; (2) Management and child wellbeing; and (3) Professional communication education and consultation with families. Although some children demonstrate good awareness of symptoms and appropriate use of medication, some parents expressed difficulty in identifying triggers and symptoms of asthma. Furthermore, parents lacked awareness regarding appropriate use of medication for preventing and managing symptoms of asthma. Health professionals believed that communication and education was lacking. Data from all participants suggested that consultations could be enhanced with greater emphasis on children’s and parents' perceptions of asthma in the development of asthma management plans.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Educational psychology, Management, Child, Childhood, Children, Defense of infancy

2

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIA-U) can lead to poor visual outcomes and impact a child’s quality of life (QOL) and function. Our aim is to identify risk markers of JIA-U and examine differences in the QOL of children with JIA and JIA-U.

Concepts: Quality, Childhood, Children, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

2

Marine litter is a significant environmental problem inherently linked to individuals' purchasing, use and disposal behaviour. This research examined 176 British schoolchildren’s (aged 8-13years) baseline marine litter understanding and self-reported actions, and tested the impact of an educational intervention. All children participated in the educational intervention and completed a pre- and post-intervention questionnaire. At baseline, children were quite concerned about marine litter and recognised some of the causes and impacts of the problem. Children also reported taking a number of actions to help solve the problem. After the intervention, children were significantly more concerned, had a better understanding of the causes and negative impacts, and reported engaging in more actions to reduce the potential causes of marine litter. Understanding the perceptions and behaviours of children is crucial as they represent current and future actors and a potentially important source of social influence among their peers, parents and community.

Concepts: Psychology, Child, Behavior, Children, Potential, Waste, Social influence, Actor

1

Because consequences of pediatric overweight and obesity are largely psychosocial, the aim of this study was to describe health related quality of life (HRQoL), the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and to examine the relationships between HRQoL and body mass index (BMI), age, and gender in a Norwegian sample of schoolchildren. In addition, because children are dependent upon their parents' judgment of their condition, the aim was also to compare child- and parent-reported HRQoL and BMI, age, and gender.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Nutrition, Obesity, Body mass index, Child, Childhood, Children, Body shape

1

To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children’s physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child’s age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors.

Concepts: Obesity, Socioeconomic status, Mass, Body mass index, Child, Childhood, Children, Defense of infancy

1

Carrying a backpack is common among schoolchildren. The effect of backpack load on spine pain and posture defects in children is often raised in the literature. According to scientific research, the maximum backpack load that is safe for children must not exceed 10-15% of their body mass. There is a lack of scientific reports related to the effect of frequently wearing a backpack on one shoulder among children and young adults and its influence on the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures of spine.

Concepts: Scientific method, Science, Research, Child, Children, Human anatomy, Curvature

1

One of the major characteristics of autism is impairment of communication and socialization. While such impairment per se has been well documented, research into effective interventions for children with this developmental disorder is still limited. Here we present preliminary evidence for the possibility of improvement of the capability of social perspective-taking in schoolchildren with autism by having intensive experience with narrative, in which they were exposed to narrative in story books read by their parents over a consecutive 5- to 6-day-period. When their capability was evaluated on the basis of a conventional role-taking task, the mean score tended to increase after the exposure as compared to before the exposure, whereas such a change was not recorded in children who did not experience such exposure. These effects were confirmed when the children were retested 4 months later. Although preliminary, the current study represents a step toward the development of more effective social perspective-taking interventions for children with autism.

Concepts: Sociology, Autism, Child, Developmental psychology, Children, Puberty, Human development, Major