SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Chemotherapy regimens

171

Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown algae that has been reported to perform multiple biological activities, including antitumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan on mouse breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, In vivo, In vitro, Chemotherapy regimens

170

Multidrug resistance driven by ABC membrane transporters is one of the major reasons for treatment failure in human malignancy. Some limited evidence has previously been reported on the cell cycle dependence of ABC transporter expression. However, it has never been demonstrated that the functional activity of these transporters correlates with the cell cycle position. Here, we studied the rate of intrinsic ABC transport in different phases of the cell cycle in cultured MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The rate was characterized in terms of the efflux kinetics from cells loaded with an ABC transporter substrate. As averaging the kinetics over a cell population could lead to errors, we studied kinetics of ABC transport at the single-cell level. We found that the rate of ABC transport in MCF-7 cells could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with two classical parameters, V(max) and K(M). Each of these parameters showed similar unimodal distributions with different positions of maxima for cell subpopulations in the 2c and 4c states. Compared to the 2c cells, the 4c cells exhibited greater V(max) values, indicating a higher activity of transport. They also exhibited a greater V(max)/K(M) ratio, indicating a higher efficiency of transport. Our findings suggest that cell cycle-related modulation of MDR may need to be taken into account when designing chemotherapy regimens which include cytostatic agents.

Concepts: Gene expression, Cancer, Breast cancer, Cell division, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimens, Transport, MCF-7

166

BackgroundRituximab-hyper-CVAD alternating with rituximab-high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine is a commonly utilized regimen in the United States for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) based on phase II single institutional data. To confirm the clinical efficacy of this regimen and determine its feasibility in a multicenter study that includes both academic and community-based practices, a phase II study of this regimen was conducted by SWOG.Patients and methodsForty-nine patients with advanced stage, previously untreated MCL were eligible. The median age was 57.4 years (35-69.8 years).ResultsNineteen patients (39%) did not complete the full scheduled course of treatment due to toxicity. There was one treatment-related death and two cases of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). There were 10 episodes of grade 3 febrile neutropenia, 19 episodes of grade 3 and 1 episode of grade 4 infection. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the median progression-free survival was 4.8 years (5.5 years for those ≤65 years) and the median overall survival (OS) was 6.8 years.ConclusionsAlthough this regimen is toxic, it is active for patients ≤65 years of age and can be given both at academic centers and in experienced community centers.

Concepts: Clinical trial, United States, Chemotherapy, Acute myeloid leukemia, Chemotherapy regimens, Fever, Mantle cell lymphoma, Myelodysplastic syndrome

73

Background Olaparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that has promising antitumor activity in patients with metastatic breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which olaparib monotherapy was compared with standard therapy in patients with a germline BRCA mutation and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer who had received no more than two previous chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or standard therapy with single-agent chemotherapy of the physician’s choice (capecitabine, eribulin, or vinorelbine in 21-day cycles). The primary end point was progression-free survival, which was assessed by blinded independent central review and was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Of the 302 patients who underwent randomization, 205 were assigned to receive olaparib and 97 were assigned to receive standard therapy. Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the olaparib group than in the standard-therapy group (7.0 months vs. 4.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.80; P<0.001). The response rate was 59.9% in the olaparib group and 28.8% in the standard-therapy group. The rate of grade 3 or higher adverse events was 36.6% in the olaparib group and 50.5% in the standard-therapy group, and the rate of treatment discontinuation due to toxic effects was 4.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Conclusions Among patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and a germline BRCA mutation, olaparib monotherapy provided a significant benefit over standard therapy; median progression-free survival was 2.8 months longer and the risk of disease progression or death was 42% lower with olaparib monotherapy than with standard therapy. (Funded by AstraZeneca; OlympiAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02000622 .).

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimens

54

Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with CNS-directed chemotherapy are at risk for neurocognitive deficits. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the neurodevelopmental trajectory in this vulnerable population.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Chemotherapy, Sociology, Leukemia, Chemotherapy regimens, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Vincristine, Lymphoblast

44

As an oncologist, when I sit with patients to discuss starting a new chemotherapy regimen, their first questions are often “How will it make me feel?” and “How did patients like me feel with this treatment?” Regrettably, this information is generally missing from U.S. drug labels and from published reports of clinical trials - the two information sources most commonly available to people trying to understand the clinical effects of cancer drugs. In 2011, 15 hematology-oncology drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In only one case - that of ruxolitinib for the management of myelofibrosis . . .

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Palliative care, Chemotherapy regimens, Experimental cancer treatment

34

Moderate differences in efficacy between adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for breast cancer are plausible, and could affect treatment choices. We sought any such differences.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Randomized controlled trial, Estrogen, Chemotherapy, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens

31

Many women with early-stage breast cancer are working at the time of diagnosis and survive without disease recurrence. The short-term impact of chemotherapy receipt on employment has been demonstrated, but the long-term impact merits further research.

Concepts: Time, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Estrogen, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimens, Term

30

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive disease, and although no effective targeted therapies are available to date, about one-third of patients with TNBC achieve pathologic complete response (pCR) from standard-of-care anthracycline/taxane (ACT) chemotherapy. The heterogeneity of these tumors, however, has hindered the discovery of effective biomarkers to identify such patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Pleural effusion, Chemotherapy regimens, Targeted therapy

28

Mantle cell lymphoma is a relatively rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that accounts for approximately 6000 new cases per year in the USA. The median age of patients at presentation is around 65 years, and almost all patients present with stage IV disease. Over the past decade, our understanding of the molecular pathology of the disease has substantially improved. Furthermore, intensive chemotherapy treatment options were developed to improve the complete remission rates and to prolong the remission duration. More recently, several targeted agents have shown promising clinical results with good safety profiles. Future directions should focus on incorporating these novel agents in new less toxic regimens, and should also identify biomarkers that can better match patients with effective treatment strategies.

Concepts: Time, Better, Cancer, Improve, Chemotherapy, Lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Mantle cell lymphoma