Concept: Chambers of parliament
Social media aggregate people around common interests eliciting collective framing of narratives and worldviews. However, in such a disintermediated environment misinformation is pervasive and attempts to debunk are often undertaken to contrast this trend. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of debunking on Facebook through a quantitative analysis of 54 million users over a time span of five years (Jan 2010, Dec 2014). In particular, we compare how users usually consuming proven (scientific) and unsubstantiated (conspiracy-like) information on Facebook US interact with specific debunking posts. Our findings confirm the existence of echo chambers where users interact primarily with either conspiracy-like or scientific pages. However, both groups interact similarly with the information within their echo chamber. Then, we measure how users from both echo chambers interacted with 50,220 debunking posts accounting for both users consumption patterns and the sentiment expressed in their comments. Sentiment analysis reveals a dominant negativity in the comments to debunking posts. Furthermore, such posts remain mainly confined to the scientific echo chamber. Only few conspiracy users engage with corrections and their liking and commenting rates on conspiracy posts increases after the interaction.
In order to determine the effects on foraminifera due to spilled crude oil in the “Herbei Spirit” incident, a study of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was carried out on sediment samples collected from the Sogeunri tidal flat, Taean Peninsula, Korea. Breakages of the chambers in the Ammonia beccarii and Elphidium subincertum species of the Sogeunri tidal flat with a low pH (6.98 on average) were marked. These chamber breakages occurred in 71.6% of A. beccarii and are thought to be caused by decalcification due to the fall in pH resulting from the “Hebei Spirit” oil spill. The factors that affect breakage of the chamber in benthic foraminifera under low pH condition may be not only deto decalcification but also to exposure duration of substrata in the tidal flat spilled crude oil.
Although recommended by current guidelines, adoption of three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) chamber quantification in clinical practice has lagged because of time-consuming analysis. We recently validated an automated algorithm that measures left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). This study aimed to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of these measurements in a multicentre setting.
The GA(2)LEN chamber has been developed as a novel mobile allergen exposure chamber (AEC) allowing standardized multicenter trials in allergy. Hitherto, subjective nasal symptom scores have been the most often used outcome parameter, but in standardized modern trials objective parameters are preferred. Despite its practicability, the objective parameter peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) has been rarely used for allergy trials in the setting of allergen exposure chambers. This study aims to evaluate PNIF as an outcome parameter for provocation studies in AECs.
In this paper, we propose an easy-to-implement passive liquid valve (PLV) for the microfluidic compact-disc (CD). This valve can be implemented by introducing venting chambers to control the air flow of the source and destination chambers. The PLV mechanism is based on equalizing the main forces acting on the microfluidic CD (i.e., the centrifugal and capillary forces) to control the burst frequency of the source chamber liquid. For a better understanding of the physics behind the proposed PLV, an analytical model is described. Moreover, three parameters that control the effectiveness of the proposed valve, i.e., the liquid height, liquid density, and venting chamber position with respect to the CD center, are tested experimentally. To demonstrate the ability of the proposed PLV valve, microfluidic liquid switching and liquid metering are performed. In addition, a Bradford assay is performed to measure the protein concentration and evaluated in comparison to the benchtop procedure. The result shows that the proposed valve can be implemented in any microfluidic process that requires simplicity and accuracy. Moreover, the developed valve increases the flexibility of the centrifugal CD platform for passive control of the liquid flow without the need for an external force or trigger.
In almost any branch of chemistry or life sciences, it is often necessary to study the interaction between different components in a system by varying their respective concentrations in a systematic manner. Currently, many procedures for generating a series of samples of different solute concentration levels are still done manually by dilution. To address this issue, we present herein a highly automated linear concentration gradient generator based on centrifugal microfluidics. The operation of this device is based on the use of multi-layered microfluidics in which individual fluidic samples to be mixed together are stored and metered in their respective layers before finally being transferred to a mixing chamber. To demonstrate the operation of this scheme, we have used the device to conduct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Firstly, DI water, ampicillin solution and E. coli suspension were loaded into the chambers in different layers. As the device went through several rounds of spinning at different speeds, a series of metered dosages of ampicillin along a linear concentration gradient were introduced to the mixing chamber and mixed with E. coli automatically. By monitoring the spectral absorbance of the suspensions, we were able to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of ampicillin against E. coli. The process took about 3 hours to complete, and the experimental results showed a strong correlation with those obtained with the standard CLSI broth dilution method. Clearly, the platform is useful for a wide range of applications such as drug discovery and personalised medicine, where concentration gradients are of concern.
Some authors have hypothesized that left ventricular chamber dilatation in ischaemic and idiopathic cardiomyopathies results in spherical transformation. Aiming to characterize how this transformation occurs, a study was performed by comparing normal and dilated specimens regarding sphericity and proportionality in left heart chambers. It is important to provide data for the development of therapeutic strategies in these diseases.
Assessments of the impacts of ozone (O3 ) on regional and global food production are currently based on results from experiments using open-top chambers (OTCs). However, there are concerns that these impact estimates might be biased due to the environmental artifacts imposed by this enclosure system. In this study, we collated O3 exposure and yield data for three major crop species-wheat, rice and soybean-for which O3 experiments have been conducted with OTCs as well as the ecologically more realistic free air O3 elevation (O3 -FACE) exposure system; both within the same cultivation region and country. For all three crops, we found that the sensitivity of crop yield to the O3 metric AOT40 (accumulated O3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb) significantly differed between OTC and O3 -FACE experiments. In wheat and rice, O3 sensitivity was higher in O3 -FACE than OTC experiments, while the opposite was the case for soybean. In all three crops, these differences could be linked to factors influencing stomatal conductance (manipulation of water inputs, passive chamber warming, and cultivar differences in gas exchange). Our study thus highlights the importance of accounting for factors that control stomatal O3 flux when applying experimental data to assess O3 impacts on crops at large spatial scales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
To present a novel 2041 liquid-filled ionization chamber array for high-resolution verification of radiotherapy treatments.
The aim of this technical communication is to provide correction factors for recombination and polarity effect for two new ionization chambers PTW PinPoint 3D (type 31022) and PTW Semiflex 3D (type 31021). The correction factors provided are for the (based on the) German DIN 6800-2 dosimetry protocol and the AAPM TG51 protocol. The measurements were made in filtered and unfiltered high-energy photon beams in a water equivalent phantom at maximum depth of the PDD and a field size on the surface of 10cm×10cm. The design of the new chamber types leads to an ion collection efficiency and a polarity effect that are well within the specifications requested by pertinent dosimetry protocols including the addendum of TG-51. It was confirmed that the recombination effect of both chambers mainly depends on dose per pulse and is independent of the filtration of the photon beam.