Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cervical dilation


Balloon dilation may offer a more expedient and cost-effective treatment method compared with traditional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic maxillary atelectasis. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of balloon dilation of the maxillary os as a treatment modality for patients with chronic maxillary atelectasis by investigating the short-term outcomes in a retrospective case series of 4 patients representing 5 sinuses treated between 2011 and 2013. All sinuses were successfully balloon dilated without complications. Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Aeration of the treated sinuses without restenosis was confirmed by postoperative endoscopy, sinus computed tomography, or both. All patients reported subjective symptomatic improvement. Balloon dilation of the maxillary os may be a feasible treatment option for maxillary sinus atelectasis. Longer follow-up and a larger study sample will be needed to validate the safety of this technique and determine the rate of restenosis.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Retrospective, Maxillary sinus, Endoscopy, Case series, Dilation, Cervical dilation


New labor curves have challenged the traditional understanding of the general pattern of dilation and descent in labor. They also revealed wide variation in the time to advance in dilation. An interval of arrest such as 4 hours did not fall beyond normal limits until dilation had reached 6 cm. Thus the ACOG/SMFM first stage arrest criteria, based in part on these findings, are applicable only in late labor. The wide range of time to dilate is unavoidable because cervical dilation has neither a precise nor direct relationship to time. Newer statistical techniques (multifactorial models) can improve precision by incorporating several factors that are directly related to labor progress. At each examination the calculations adapt to the mother’s current labor conditions. They produce a quantitative assessment expressed in percentiles. Low percentiles indicate potentially problematic labor progression.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistics, Sociology, Accuracy and precision, Quantitative research, Dilation, Cervical dilation


Our objective was to describe contemporary practice patterns in the timing of caesarean delivery in relation to cervical dilation, overall and by indication for caesarean. Our secondary objective was to examine how commonly caesarean delivery was performed for labour dystocia at dilations below 4 cm or without the use of oxytocin, overall and between hospitals.

Concepts: Cohort study, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Epidural, Caesarean section, Breech birth, Dystocia, Cervical dilation


The aim of this study was to analyze how the progression of cervical dilatation in active labor can be predicted by digital assessment in low-risk pregnant women, in spontaneous labor at term.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Cervical dilation


Cervical dilation in the second trimester is associated with a greater than 90% rate of spontaneous preterm birth and a poor perinatal prognosis.

Concepts: Cohort study, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Cervix, Cervical dilation


The mechanism for fetal heart rate abnormalities following spinal opioids remains controversial. We evaluated uterine tone, using an intra-uterine pressure catheter, and fetal heart rate abnormalities in 30 women in spontaneous labour with cervical dilation of 3-5 cm having combined spinal-epidural analgesia. Women were randomly assigned to receive a spinal with 2.0 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 15 μg fentanyl, or 2.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine. The primary outcome measure was an increase > 10 mmHg in baseline uterine tone in the 30-min period following spinal injection. Only three (20%) women who had a bupivacaine-fentanyl spinal showed a > 10 mmHg increase in baseline tone vs. none who had bupivacaine (p = 0.63). The mean (SD) baseline uterine tone after the spinal injection was 13.3 (7.0) mmHg in the bupivacaine-fentanyl group and 7.7 (2.5) mmHg in the bupivacaine group (p = 0.01). Seven (47%) in the bupivacaine-fentanyl group showed new onset fetal heart rate changes during the 30-min period after the spinal, compared with two (13%) in the bupivacaine group (p = 0.04); however, these were transient and responded to intra-uterine resuscitation. Pain scores, sensory and motor block as well as neonatal outcomes were comparable between the groups. We found that raised baseline uterine tone was not more frequent when using bupivacaine-fentanyl rather than bupivacaine in the spinal component of combined spinal-epidural, although absolute values of baseline tone were higher, and fetal heart rate changes more frequent, in the former group.

Concepts: Game theory, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Blood, Fetus, Uterus, Cervix, Cervical dilation


A 26-year-old G1P0 at 40w1d presents in spontaneous labor and is dilated to 4 cm. The patient reached complete cervical dilation after artificial rupture of membranes and oxytocin augmentation. After 4 hours of pushing, there has been minimal descent of the fetal vertex beyond +1 station with significant caput succedaneum. Her physician decides to proceed with cesarean delivery. What antibiotics should be administered prior to incision to reduce postoperative infection?

Concepts: Childbirth, Obstetrics, Epidural, Caesarean section, Breech birth, Ventouse, Fetal distress, Cervical dilation


This study was conducted to assess the effect on labor process and parenting behavior of hydrotherapy applied during the active phase of labor. This quasi-experimental study was conducted by using an equivalent comparison group ( n = 40). The participants in the experimental group whose cervical dilation was 5 cm were taken to the hydrotherapy tub. This application continued until cervical dilation reached 10 cm. The Participants Questionnaire, The Birth Follow-up Questionnaire, The Postpartum ]collection tools. The duration of the active phase and second stage of labor was extremely short in the experimental group in comparison with the equivalent comparison group ( p = .001). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the experimental group were lower than those of the equivalent comparison group when cervical dilation was 6 cm and 10 cm ( p = .001). The experimental group also displayed more positive parenting behavior and positive labor feeling ( p = .001).

Concepts: Childbirth, Evaluation methods, Economics, Research, Assessment, Psychometrics, Experiment, Cervical dilation


This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a method combining double-balloon catheter for cervical ripening and intravenous drip of oxytocin on the induction of term labor, providing the reference for clinical safety.

Concepts: Childbirth, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Obstetrics, Oxytocin, Peripheral venous catheter, Multicenter trial, Cervical dilation


Backgound Partographs are used in many labour settings to provide a pictorial overview of a woman’s cervical dilation pattern in the first stage of labor and to alert clinicians to slow progress possibly requiring intervention. Recent reviews called for large trials to establish the efficacy of partographs to improve birth outcomes whilst highlighting issues of clinician compliance with use. Previous studies have also reported issues with participant recruitment related to concerns regarding the possibility of a longer labour. Objectives We sought to compare a standard partograph with an action line, to a newly designed partograph with a stepped line, to determine the feasibility of recruitment to a larger clinical trial. Methods A pragmatic, single-blind randomised trial wherein low-risk, nulliparous women in spontaneous labour at term were randomized to an action-line or stepped-line partograph. First stage labour management was guided by the allocated partograph. Primary outcomes included the proportion of eligible women recruited, reasons for failed recruitment and compliance with partograph use. Secondary outcomes included rates of intervention, mode of birth, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Of the 384 potentially eligible participants, 38% (149/384) were approached. Of these 77% (116/149) consented, with 85% (99/116) randomized, only nine women approached (6%) declined to participate. A further 9% (14/149) who were consented antenatally were not eligible at onset of labor and 7% (10/149) of women approached in the birth suite but did not meet the inclusion criteria. Compliance with partograph completion was 65% (action) versus 84% (dystocia line). Conclusions for Practice Participant recruitment to a larger randomized controlled trial comparing new labour management guidelines to standard care is feasible. Effective strategies to improve partograph completion compliance would be required to maintain trial fidelity.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Childbirth, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Efficacy, Woman, Cervical dilation