SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cerebral aneurysm

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Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with unfavorable proximal seal zones remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of proximal extension cuff usage for type I endoleaks in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms and unfavorable necks treated with the C3 Excluder repositionable endoprosthesis compared with the traditional Excluder stent-graft.

Concepts: Cerebral aneurysm, Model theory, Aorta, Aortic dissection, Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, Aneurysm, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aortic aneurysm

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Object Patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms have historically been observed to have poor neuropsychological outcomes, and ACoA aneurysms have accounted for a higher proportion of ruptured than unruptured aneurysms. Authors of this study aimed to investigate the morphological and clinical characteristics predisposing to ACoA aneurysm rupture. Methods Data from 140 consecutive patients with ACoA aneurysms managed at the authors' facility between July 2003 and November 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with (78) and without (62) aneurysm rupture were divided into groups, and morphological and clinical characteristics were compared. Morphological characteristics were evaluated based on 3D CT angiography and included aneurysm location, dominance of the A(1) portion of the anterior cerebral artery, direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA, aneurysm bleb(s), size of the aneurysm and its neck, aneurysm-parent artery angle, and existence of other intracranial unruptured aneurysms. Results Patients with ruptured ACoA aneurysms were significantly younger (a higher proportion were younger than 60 years of age) than those with unruptured lesions, and a significantly smaller proportion had hypercholesterolemia. A significantly larger proportion of patients with ruptured aneurysms showed an anterior direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA, had a bleb(s), and/or had an aneurysm size ≥ 5 mm. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an anterior direction of the aneurysm dome around the ACoA (OR 6.0, p = 0.0012), the presence of a bleb(s) (OR 22, p < 0.0001), and an aneurysm size ≥ 5 mm (OR 3.16, p = 0.035) were significantly associated with ACoA aneurysm rupture. Conclusions Findings in the present study demonstrated that the anterior projection of an ACoA aneurysm may be related to rupturing. The authors would perhaps recommend treatment to patients with unruptured ACoA aneurysms that have an anterior dome projection, a bleb(s), and a size ≥ 5 mm.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Arteries of the head and neck, Atherosclerosis, Circle of Willis, Anterior cerebral artery, Cerebral aneurysm, Aneurysm, Anterior communicating artery

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Aberrant regeneration of a third nerve palsy (oculomotor synkinesis) excludes an ischaemic cause and in the absence of relevant trauma strongly suggests a compressive aetiology. A scan is mandatory in such cases. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with complete pupil-involving third nerve palsy from a posterior communicating artery aneurysm, who later developed widespread aberrant regeneration of pupil, eyelid and third nerve territory rectus muscles.

Concepts: Oculomotor nerve, In the Absence of Truth, Muscle, Case, Oculomotor nerve palsy, Cerebral aneurysm, Posterior communicating artery

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This report presents a fully thrombosed giant aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) mimicking an intracranial tumour in a 9-year-old paediatric patient. Surgical clipping and aneurysmectomy were performed. Postoperative imaging studies confirmed the removal of the lesion and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficits. Our case shows that giant thrombosed aneurysms involving the PICA could be potentially misdiagnosed as neoplasms in children and great care must be exercised when managing such cases.

Concepts: Thrombus, Anterior inferior cerebellar artery, Hypertension, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, Atherosclerosis, Cerebral aneurysm, Stroke, Medicine

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We report a patient with a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Due to the aneurysm dimensions and absence of symtoms the patient was treated conservatively.

Concepts: Coronary circulation, Cerebral aneurysm, Artery, Atherosclerosis

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BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms relies on coaxial catheter support systems to provide safe and stable access. Large-bore distal intracranial catheters have become necessary for aneurysm treatment with flow diverting devices including the Pipeline embolization device (PED). These catheters must accommodate 0.027 inch microcatheters, be supple enough to track distally and be able to provide sufficient support for manipulations required for PED deployment. METHODS: A single-center aneurysm database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent anterior circulation aneurysm embolization with the PED while using the Navien distal intracranial catheter. Data were collected regarding the equipment used, cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) tortuosity, intraprocedural Navien positions and periprocedural complications. RESULTS: The Navien catheter (5 Fr, 0.070 inch outer diameter, 0.058 inch inner diameter, 115 cm) was used in 78 cases of anterior circulation PED. It was tracked into position over a Marksman microcatheter in 76 of the 78 cases (97%). The final catheter tip position was in the cervical ICA (1/78, 1%), petrous ICA (23/78, 30%), proximal cavernous ICA (48/78, 62%), distal cavernous/clinoidal ICA (3/78, 4%), supraclinoid ICA (2/78, 2%) and the M1 segment (1/78, 2%). In each case the catheter was tracked to its desired position (100% clinical success) despite significant proximal vessel tortuosity in 34 cases (44%). No clinically significant catheter-related complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The Navien intracranial catheter is an important component of the triaxial system for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with the PED. This catheter is highly trackable to distal positions, atraumatic and provides sufficient support for the microcatheter manipulations used during typical PED deployments.

Concepts: Cavernous sinus, Posterior communicating artery, External carotid artery, Cerebral aneurysm, Catheter, Internal carotid artery, Aneurysm, Common carotid artery

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Subarachnoid hemorrhages from ruptured cerebral aneurysms have a high clinical relevance and often lead to death. Approximately 2% to 5% of the people worldwide, even of younger age, are said to have aneurysms at cerebral arteries. In many cases, they remain clinically unapparent for decades. However, there are numerous risk factors for the rupture of an aneurysm, including temporary raises of the blood pressure. Such changes of the blood pressure can be induced even by several everyday behaviors. For example, any sort of sexual activities may cause extensive raises of the blood pressure because of several physical and psychological factors. The term “sexual activity” covers sexual intercourse as well as masturbation. In this article, the remarkable case of a 24-year-old woman with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm in the context of masturbation is presented. It is discussed with respect to the possible pathophysiological effects of sexual activity on cerebral aneurysms.

Concepts: Blood, Atherosclerosis, Human behavior, Aneurysm, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Cerebral aneurysm

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Postoperative subdural fluid collection sometimes occurs after clipping of cerebral aneurysms. Arachnoid plasty is used to prevent such postoperative complications; however, the optimal materials for arachnoid plasty remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the optimal materials for arachnoid plasty and report our experience of arachnoid plasty after clipping of unruptured aneurysms.

Concepts: Thrombin, In vitro fertilisation, Aneurysm, Cerebral aneurysm, In vitro

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Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage are the major life threatening and functional components of the follow up of a ruptured aneurysm. Knowing how to identify these is a key challenge. They vary in type throughout the postoperative follow up period. The aim of this article is firstly to list the main complications of the acute phase (rebleeding, acute hydrocephalus, acute ischemic injury and non-neurological complications), the subacute phase (vasospasm) and the chronic phase of subarachnoid hemorrhages: (chronic hydrocephalus and cognitive disorders) and to describe their major clinical and radiological features. Secondly, we describe the long-term follow up strategy for patients who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and have been treated endovascularly or by surgery. This follow up involves a combination of clinical consultations, cerebral MRI and at least one review angiogram.

Concepts: Bleeding, Cerebral aneurysm, Chronic, Ischemia, Acute, Radiology, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage

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The effectiveness of a hybrid hydrogel platinum detachable coil (HydroCoil; MicroVention Inc., Tustin, CA) for endovascular aneurysm treatment has been proven in a recently published RCT. Due to technical restrictions (coil stiffness, time restriction for placement), the HydroSoft coil as well as a corresponding 3D framing coil, the HydroFrame coil (MicroVention Inc., Tustin, CA), a class of new softer coils containing less hydrogel and swelling more slowly than the HydroCoil, have been developed and brought to clinical practice. The present study aims to compare the effectiveness of endovascular aneurysm treatment with coil embolization between patients allocated HydroSoft/HydroFrame versus bare platinum coiling. GREAT is a randomized, controlled, multicentre trial in patients bearing cerebral aneurysms to be treated by coil embolization. Eligible patients were randomized to either coil embolization with HydroSoft/HydroFrame coils (>50 % of administered coil length), or bare platinum coils. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age 18-75, ruptured aneurysm (WFNS 1-3) and unruptured aneurysm with a diameter between 4 and 12 mm. Anatomy such that endovascular coil occlusion deemed possible and willingness of the neurointerventionalist to use either HydroSoft/HydroFrame or bare platinum coils. Exclusion criteria were as follows: aneurysms previously treated by coiling or clipping. Primary endpoint is a composite of major aneurysm recurrence on follow-up angiography and poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin scale 3 or higher), both assessed at 18 months post treatment. Risk differences for poor outcomes will be estimated in a modified intention-to-treat analysis stratified by rupture status (DRKS-ID: DRKS00003132).

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Clinical trial, Modified Rankin Scale, Radiology, Clinical research, Cerebral aneurysm, Aneurysm, Coil