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Concept: Centre-right

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Liberals and conservatives exhibit different cognitive styles and converging lines of evidence suggest that biology influences differences in their political attitudes and beliefs. In particular, a recent study of young adults suggests that liberals and conservatives have significantly different brain structure, with liberals showing increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and conservatives showing increased gray matter volume in the in the amygdala. Here, we explore differences in brain function in liberals and conservatives by matching publicly-available voter records to 82 subjects who performed a risk-taking task during functional imaging. Although the risk-taking behavior of Democrats (liberals) and Republicans (conservatives) did not differ, their brain activity did. Democrats showed significantly greater activity in the left insula, while Republicans showed significantly greater activity in the right amygdala. In fact, a two parameter model of partisanship based on amygdala and insula activations yields a better fitting model of partisanship than a well-established model based on parental socialization of party identification long thought to be one of the core findings of political science. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives engage different cognitive processes when they think about risk, and they support recent evidence that conservatives show greater sensitivity to threatening stimuli.

Concepts: Psychology, Brain, Cognition, Cerebrum, Mind, Centre-right, Brodmann area 24, Anterior cingulate cortex

93

Previous research has shown that political leanings correlate with various psychological factors. While surveys and experiments provide a rich source of information for political psychology, data from social networks can offer more naturalistic and robust material for analysis. This research investigates psychological differences between individuals of different political orientations on a social networking platform, Twitter. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the language used by liberals emphasizes their perception of uniqueness, contains more swear words, more anxiety-related words and more feeling-related words than conservatives' language. Conversely, we predicted that the language of conservatives emphasizes group membership and contains more references to achievement and religion than liberals' language. We analysed Twitter timelines of 5,373 followers of three Twitter accounts of the American Democratic and 5,386 followers of three accounts of the Republican parties' Congressional Organizations. The results support most of the predictions and previous findings, confirming that Twitter behaviour offers valid insights to offline behaviour.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Prediction, Sociology, Centre-right, Social network service, Democratic Party, Twitter

1

This study examined patient outcomes after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation across a range of center surgical volumes.

Concepts: Volume, Left-wing politics, Centre-right, Ventricular assist device, Political spectrum, Social liberalism, Social democracy, Centre-left

1

To analyse how training doctors' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics vary according to the specialty that they are training for.

Concepts: Logit, Physician, According to Jim, Centre-right, Right-wing politics

1

Stigma is a significant barrier to breastfeeding. Internationally, mothers have reported stigma surrounding public breastfeeding. In the United Kingdom, the Equality Act 2010 gives women the right to breastfeed in public, including within private businesses. In April 2014, a woman who was breastfeeding in a UK sports shop was asked to leave, resulting in a localized protest by breastfeeding mothers. This resulted in the issue of public breastfeeding being highlighted in local, national, and social media.

Concepts: Breastfeeding, United Kingdom, Woman, Centre-right, River Thames, Act of Parliament, Private school, Breastfeeding in public

1

People’s social and political opinions are grounded in their moral concerns about right and wrong. We examine whether five moral foundations-harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity-can influence political attitudes of liberals and conservatives across a variety of issues. Framing issues using moral foundations may change political attitudes in at least two possible ways: (a) Entrenching: Relevant moral foundations will strengthen existing political attitudes when framing pro-attitudinal issues (e.g., conservatives exposed to a free-market economic stance) and (b) Persuasion: Mere presence of relevant moral foundations may also alter political attitudes in counter-attitudinal directions (e.g., conservatives exposed to an economic regulation stance). Studies 1 and 2 support the entrenching hypothesis. Relevant moral foundation-based frames bolstered political attitudes for conservatives (Study 1) and liberals (Study 2). Only Study 2 partially supports the persuasion hypothesis. Conservative-relevant moral frames of liberal issues increased conservatives' liberal attitudes.

Concepts: Centre-right, Conservatism, Political spectrum, Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Classical liberalism, Libertarianism, Free market

1

The functional role of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been implicated in a number of studies, including those investigating face perception, voice perception, and face-voice integration. However, the nature of the STS preference for these ‘social stimuli’ remains unclear, as does the location within the STS for specific types of information processing. The aim of this study was to directly examine properties of the STS in terms of selective response to social stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan participants whilst they were presented with auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli of people or objects, with the intention of localising areas preferring both faces and voices (i.e., ‘people-selective’ regions) and audiovisual regions designed to specifically integrate person-related information. Results highlighted a ‘people-selective, heteromodal’ region in the trunk of the right STS which was activated by both faces and voices, and a restricted portion of the right posterior STS (pSTS) with an integrative preference for information from people, as compared to objects. These results point towards the dedicated role of the STS as a ‘social-information processing’ centre.

Concepts: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cognition, Integral, Human voice, Information, Centre-right, Political spectrum

0

In the 1990s, epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patches were frequently implanted to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. However, owing to the high rates of functional failure, the patch system has been replaced by transvenous ICD leads system. Although morphological abnormalities such as dense fibrosis around the patch are quite frequent, epicardial ICD patch-induced localized constrictive pericarditis is very rare. We encountered a patient who had severe heart failure due to constrictive pericarditis, 23 years after the implantation of epicardial ICD patches. The heart failure was treated after complete resection of the patches and dense fibrosis on the surface of both the right and the left ventricles. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of epicardial ICD patch-induced localized constrictive pericarditis.

Concepts: Cardiology, Left-wing politics, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Frequentative, Centre-right, Right-wing politics, Political spectrum, French Revolution

0

There is limited evidence of the impact of policies to promote work-family balance on family health. Exploiting the introduction of the UK Flexible Working Act (2003), we examined whether a policy that grants parents the right to request flexible work influences their health and well-being.

Concepts: Family, Experimental design, Clinical trial, United Kingdom, Centre-right, Mother, Father, Act of Parliament

0

A 56-year-old white man presented with several months of visual changes and diffuse myalgias. He reported difficulty seeing out of the lower portion of his left eye for several months, which he described as “cigarette smoke clouding [his] vision.” He also reported mild discomfort with movement of the affected eye. He attributed the visual loss to potential injury during his work as a welder. In addition, he complained of several months of diffuse body pain and stiffness and generalized malaise. The pain and stiffness were worse in his shoulders and hips and were worse in the morning, with improvement by the middle of the day. On some days, these symptoms were so severe that he was unable to go to work. He also noted a vague bitemporal headache, worse on the left than the right. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Left-wing politics, Visual perception, Centre-right, Right-wing politics, All rights reserved, Political spectrum, Copyright, French Revolution