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Concept: Central serous retinopathy


To determine the efficacy of high-dose antioxidants in the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Acute accent, Central serous retinopathy


Purpose:  To evaluate the effect of verteporfin photodynamic treatment (PDT) on choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods:  Choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth imaging- optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) before and after verteporfin PDT (full-dose verteporfin, half-light dose) in 16 eyes in 16 patients with serous detachment of the fovea secondary to extrafoveal angiographic fluorescein leakage. Treatment was confined to the area of leakage, whereas choroidal thickness before and after treatment was assessed over a larger area of the fundus using OCT. Results:  Complete resolution of the serous detachment was seen in all 16 eyes within 1 month of extrafoveal PDT, while choroidal thickness in the area where PDT was applied decreased from 407 μm [mean; 95% confidence interval (CI(95) ) 356-458 μm] to 349 μm (mean; CI(95) 300-399 μm; p < 0.0001), and subfoveal choroidal thickness was reduced from 421 μm (mean; CI(95) 352-489 μm) to 346 μm (mean; CI(95) 278-414 μm; p = 0.0001). Initially, subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly increased in the treated eye compared with the healthy fellow eye (mean 324 μm; CI(95) 273-376 μm; p = 0.0003), but after treatment, the difference was not significant. Discussion:  Photodynamic therapy of active CSC was followed by choroidal thickness reduction, not only locally but also at considerable distance from the treated area. Thus, the process that causes choroidal thickening in CSC appears to spread laterally within the choroid.

Concepts: Retina, Eye, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: Between 6 weeks and 3 months, 13 eyes of 22 patients with acute CSCR received an intravitreal bevacizumab injection (2 mg/0.08 mL), 9 eyes had no medical treatment as a control. At baseline and follow-up visits patients had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure assessment, dilated fundus examination, and spectral optical coherence tomography imaging. Outcome measures were the resolution of neurosensory detachment, improvement in visual acuity, and symptoms. Results: All patients showed prompt improvements of visual acuity and symptoms until the 3rd month and recovered from neurosensory detachment gradually following treatment in the study group. The vision of control subjects recovered later and the regression of serous retinal detachments were fairly slow. The mean BCVA improved from 0.39±0.16 at first visit (at baseline) to 0.73±0.17 at the 6th month in the study group; and, from 0.25±0.17 at first visit (at baseline) to 0.67±0.13 at the 6th month in the control group that was statistically significant (P=0.0001; P=0.0001, respectively). Mean retinal thickness for the study group was decreased from 414.38±102.79 at first visit (at baseline) to 256.46±84.77 at the 3rd month and 198.30±29.81 at the 6th month (P=0.0001, P=0.0001); and that for the control group was decreased from 510.33±80.59 at first visit (at baseline) to 336.33±127.83 at the 3rd month and 205.66±19.65 at the 6th month (P=0.004, P=0.0001, respectively). One of the patients in the control group revealed recurrence at the 6th month and the patient was given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab injection for acute CSCR can lead to remarkable improvements of visual acuity within 3 months follow-up compared with controls. These results demonstrated that intravitreal bevacizumab injection may be a promising option for selected patients in the treatment of acute CSCR.

Concepts: Better, Statistics, Improve, Retina, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy, Posterior vitreous detachment, Dilated fundus examination


: To study the choroidal thickness profile using high-penetration optical coherence tomography in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

Concepts: Optics, Ophthalmology, Tomography, Central serous retinopathy


PURPOSE:: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard photodynamic therapy with verteporfin at 48 months in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS:: A retrospective, multicenter, interventional case series analysis in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, treated with standard photodynamic therapy, and with ≥4 years of follow-up. Evaluations were performed every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second year, and thereafter annually. Optical coherence tomography was performed in all visits. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography were performed at baseline and thereafter as necessary. Retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography was measured manually, evaluating central macular thickness and neural retina thickness. Main outcomes included the evolution of best-corrected visual acuity, the resolution of subretinal fluid, documented with optical coherence tomography, the number of treatments, and the evaluation of neural retina thickness during the 48 months of follow-up. RESULTS:: The study included 46 eyes of 42 patients, 38 men (90.4%) and 4 women (9.5%), with mean age of 49.19 ± 9.9 years (range, 32-70 years), and the minimal follow-up period was 48 months (mean, 56.8 ±10.3 months). Subretinal fluid was observed in all the included eyes at baseline, and 10 eyes (21.7%) had intraretinal diffuse or cystoid fluid. Concerning the mean best-corrected visual acuity, a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.01, Student t-test) was registered from 58.8 ± 18.3 letters at baseline to 66.9 ± 18.6 letters at 48th month. A complete resolution of subretinal fluid was achieved in 93.4%, and resolution of intraretinal fluid occurred in all 10 cases at 48 months. Neural retina thickness remained stable during the 48 months of follow-up (163.8 ± 47 μm at baseline and 163.8 ± 46 μm at 48 months). The mean number of treatments was 1.08 ± 0.3. No systemic or ocular side effects were registered. CONCLUSION:: Standard photodynamic therapy with verteporfin was effective and safe in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy treatment with a significant improvement in the long term, both anatomic and visual, without inducing additional retinal atrophy or systemic adverse effects.

Concepts: Statistics, Optics, Retina, Eye, Visual system, Arithmetic mean, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy



Background/Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVRI) for acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Patients with symptomatic CSC of less than 3 months were prospectively recruited. Patients (n = 20/group) were randomly assigned to IVRI (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) or observation and followed for 6 months. logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine angiography, and central foveal thickness (CFT) were assessed at baseline and at regular follow-ups. Results: All patients had increased BCVA, decreased CFT, and resolution of the neurosensory detachment. Complete resolution of neurosensory retinal detachment required more time in the observation group (13.0 ± 3.1 vs. 4.2 ± 0.9 weeks; p < 0.001). Mean BCVA and mean CFT improved significantly in both groups, but the changes were not significantly different between groups at 6 months. Conclusions: IVRI for acute CSC might hasten resolution of neurosensory detachment compared to observation alone. At 6 months, BCVA and CFT did not differ between IVRI and observation groups. Further studies are required to determine the long-term benefits of IVRI.

Concepts: Retina, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy, Posterior vitreous detachment


The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) with either subthreshold diode-laser MicroPulse (MP) or intravitreal bevacizumab (BCZ) using the Pro Re Nata (PRN) scheme.

Concepts: Central serous retinopathy, Pro re nata


Abstract Purpose: We aimed to compare the mental health and quality of life (QoL) between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) patients and the control subjects. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients presenting with CSCR and age-gender-matched 30 healthy control subjects filled in the following standardized questionnaires: Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R) and Short Form 36 (SF-36). Age, gender, and ocular clinical findings were recorded. Results: According to SCL-90-R, all scores were significantly higher in the CSCR group when compared to the control group. The patients with CSCR reported significantly lower levels of QoL, except bodily pain. Conclusion: Our results indicated that CSCR patients have poorer QoL and more psychological problems. CSCR patients may benefit from psychosocial support and interventions.

Concepts: Scientific control, Psychology, Following, Quality, Quality of life, Clinical psychology, Gross domestic product, Central serous retinopathy


To determine changes in choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) during the first 3 months after initial diagnosis and assess variable therapeutic interventions via enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this prospective study, choroidal thickness was measured via EDI-OCT both in the affected and fellow eyes of 10 patients with CSCR at the fovea, as well as at 500 and 1,000 μm both temporal and nasal from the centre of the fovea and at the leakage point (if present), visualised via fluorescein angiography. Follow-up measurements were performed after 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks and 3 months. Seven of the 10 patients received additional systemic therapy with oral acetazolamide. A control group of eight healthy subjects was recruited to determine normal choroidal thickness in healthy eyes. The mean age of the 10 patients (9 male, 1 female) in the CSCR group was 42.1 (±9.3) years. The choroid in the affected eyes was significantly thickened at baseline compared to fellow eyes and the eyes of healthy subjects. The choroid in the fellow eyes also revealed a slight thickening at baseline compared to normal eyes. During the 3 month follow-up period, the choroidal thickness of the affected eyes showed a highly significant decrease, but did not reach normal levels. Minor changes could also be observed in the fellow eyes but did not reach statistical significance. In patients with CSCR, the average choroidal thickness not only demonstrated a significant thickening at baseline, but also showed a marked decrease after 3 months, yet not reaching normal levels. Our data indicate that after 3 months, normalisation of choroidal thickness is not yet completed.

Concepts: Optics, Measurement, Medical imaging, Retina, Arithmetic mean, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy, Choroid