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Concept: Celiac artery


We describe in this paper a rare case of a 45-year-old male with a common stem origin of the left gastric artery (LGA), right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA), and left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA), in association with the presence of a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk (HSMT) arising from the abdominal aorta (AA), as revealed by routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. The common stem origin of the LGA, RIPA, and LIPA had an endoluminal diameter of 3.3 mm, the LGA of 2.8 mm. The endoluminal diameter of the RIPA and LIPA was at the origin of approximately 1 mm, complicating selective chemoembolization of the liver parenchyma. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Stomach, Thoracic diaphragm, Arteries of the abdomen, Left gastric artery, Right gastric artery, Celiac artery, Inferior phrenic arteries, Inferior phrenic vein


The management options of an isolated celiac artery dissection include medical, open surgical, and endovascular techniques. Which strategy is chosen depends on the severity of the dissection, collateral circulation to the liver, the patient’s hemodynamic status, and the surgeon’s expertise. We describe an unusual case of celiac artery dissection involving splenic and hepatic arteries complicated by hemorrhage. The patient was successfully treated by coil embolization of the splenic and gastric branches. Hepatic arterial blood flow was preserved with a stent graft extending from the origin of the gastroduodenal artery to the orifice of the celiac artery.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Blood, Heart, Blood vessel, Artery, Common hepatic artery, Celiac artery, Gastroduodenal artery


Pancreatic cancer may present as a peri-arterial soft tissue cuff (PSTC) around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis without an identifiable pancreatic mass. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in patients with a PSTC without definite pancreas involvement and those with a typical pancreatic mass. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA of a PSTC without pancreatic involvement were prospectively enrolled. The patients who underwent EUS-FNA for a pancreatic mass were recruited as a control group. A total of 224 patients underwent 247 EUS-FNAs. Among the 13 patients with a PSTC, 11 were positive for malignancy as determined by EUS-FNA, with 5 diagnosed after the first session and 6 after the second session. The diagnostic yield of PSTCs by EUS-FNA was significantly lower than that for typical pancreatic masses (65% vs. 87%, p = 0.02). An on-site cytopathologist and repeated EUS-FNA are recommended to improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease entity.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Pathology, Medical tests, Needle aspiration biopsy, Pancreatic cancer, Superior mesenteric artery, Celiac artery


Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening complication. We report herein our experience with a 65-year-old man with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy with lymphadenectomy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. On postoperative day 45, he developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the common hepatic artery, and transcatheter coil embolization of that vessel was successfully performed. On postoperative day 64, he again developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the proximal superior mesenteric artery. Immediately after coil embolization of that vessel, bypass grafting between the superior mesenteric artery and the right common iliac artery was performed, using a greater saphenous vein graft. The combination of embolization and bypass grafting is an option for treatment of bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery in an emergent situation.

Concepts: Blood, Abdominal aorta, Radiology, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Great saphenous vein, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery


Objective: To determine the effects of the number of chews and meal duration on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and splanchnic blood flow (BF). Design and Methods: Healthy normal-weight subjects (11 subjects in the 100-kcal test and 10 subjects in the 300-kcal test) participated in two trials: a rapid-eating trial and a slow-eating trial. The meal duration and the number of chews were recorded. DIT was calculated from oxygen uptake and body mass, and splanchnic BF was calculated from the diameters of and blood velocities in the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery, which were recorded until 90 min after consuming the food samples. Results: For the 100-kcal and 300-kcal food samples, DIT and postprandial splanchnic BF in both the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery were significantly larger in the slow-eating trial than in the rapid-eating trial. There were significant correlations among meal duration, the number of chews, DIT, and postprandial splanchnic BF, with the exception of the relationship between DIT and splanchnic BF in the 300-kcal trial. Conclusions: These results suggest that fewer chews and/or shorter meal duration decreases DIT and the postprandial splanchnic BF, and that the increased DIT is at least partially due to the postprandial splanchnic circulation.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Food, Abdominal aorta, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery, Vitelline arteries


This statement was developed to promote international consensus on the definition of borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (BR-PDAC) which was adopted by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2006, but which has changed yearly and become more complicated. Based on a symposium held during the 20th meeting of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) in Sendai, Japan, in 2016, the presenters sought consensus on issues related to BR-PDAC. We defined patients with BR-PDAC according to the three distinct dimensions: anatomical (A), biological (B), and conditional ©. Anatomic factors include tumor contact with the superior mesenteric artery and/or celiac artery of less than 180° without showing stenosis or deformity, tumor contact with the common hepatic artery without showing tumor contact with the proper hepatic artery and/or celiac artery, and tumor contact with the superior mesenteric vein and/or portal vein including bilateral narrowing or occlusion without extending beyond the inferior border of the duodenum. Biological factors include potentially resectable disease based on anatomic criteria but with clinical findings suspicious for (but unproven) distant metastases or regional lymph nodes metastases diagnosed by biopsy or positron emission tomography-computed tomography. This also includes a serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level more than 500 units/ml. Conditional factors include the patients with potentially resectable disease based on anatomic and biologic criteria and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or more. The definition of BR-PDAC requires one or more positive dimensions (e.g. A, B, C, AB, AC, BC or ABC). The present definition acknowledges that resectability is not just about the anatomic relationship between the tumor and vessels, but that biological and conditional dimensions are also important. The aim in presenting this consensus definition is also to highlight issues which remain controversial and require further research.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Hepatic portal vein, Superior mesenteric artery, Common hepatic artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery, Hepatic artery proper


It is well known that protein ingestion immediately after exercise greatly stimulates muscle protein synthesis during the post-exercise recovery phase. However, immediately after strenuous exercise, the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is frequently injured by hypoperfusion in the organ/tissue, possibly resulting in impaired GI function (e.g., gastric emptying; GE). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GI blood flow on the GE rate. Eight healthy young subjects performed an intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise for 30 min, which consisted of a 120% VO2 peak for 20 s, followed by 20 W for 40 s. The subjects ingested 300 mL of a nutrient drink containing carbohydrate-protein at either 5 min post-exercise in one trial (PE-5) or 30 min post-exercise in another trial (PE-30). In the control trial (Con), the subjects ingested the same drink without exercise. The celiac artery blood flow (CABF) and superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF) and GE rate were assessed by ultrasonography. Before drink ingestion in PE-5, CABF significantly decreased from baseline, whereas in PE-30, it returned to baseline. Following drink ingestion in PE-5, CABF did not change from baseline, but it significantly increased in PE-30 and Con. SMABF increased significantly later in PE-5 than in PE-30 and Con. The GE rate was consistently slower in PE-5 than in PE-30 and Con. In conclusion, the CABF response after exercise seems to modulate the subsequent GE rate and SMABF response.

Concepts: Protein, Heart, Digestive system, Muscle, Artery, Abdominal aorta, Superior mesenteric artery, Celiac artery


The celiac artery, celiac axis or celiac trunk is the first major abdominal branch of the aorta. Anatomic variations and accessory vessels have been reported with variable percentages. The purpose of this study was to report the pattern of the celiac trunk and its anatomic variations in a sample of Mexican population.

Concepts: Abdominal aorta, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery


Pediatric splanchnic arterial occlusive disease is uncommon and a rare cause of clinically relevant intestinal ischemia. This study was undertaken to better define the clinical manifestations and appropriate treatment of celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusive disease in children.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Medicine, Blood vessel, Abdominal aorta, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery, Vitelline arteries


BACKGROUND In cases of celiac axis occlusion requiring pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy, both oncologic curability and control of hepatic arterial flow must be considered, but the operative strategy is undeveloped. CASE REPORT Case 1: A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with hilar cholangiocarcinoma with celiac axis stenosis. The collateral from the superior mesenteric artery ran through the pancreas head but no invasion was observed in preoperative imaging. Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of a collateral was performed. Case 2: A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with pancreas head cancer with celiac axis occlusion. The collateral from the superior mesenteric artery ran through pancreas head and tumor invasion was observed. Pancreaticoduodenectomy with bypass revascularization using a vein graft was performed. Both operations were performed safely oncologically under preoperative planning that was based on computed tomographic angiography. The operative procedure was ultimately determined by evaluation of perioperative blood flow under Doppler ultrasonography after clamping the gastroduodenal artery. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative simulations of arterial revascularization and perioperative evaluation of blood flow are necessary for the success of this procedure.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Blood, Artery, Cardiovascular system, Pancreatic cancer, Superior mesenteric artery, Celiac artery