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Concept: Celestial coordinate system


Horizontal peripheral prisms for hemianopia provide field expansion above and below the horizontal meridian; however, there is a vertical gap leaving the central area (important for driving) without expansion. In the oblique design, tilting the bases of both prism segments toward the horizontal meridian moves the field expansion area vertically and centrally (closing the central gap) while the prisms remain in the peripheral location. However, tilting the prisms results also in a reduction of the lateral field expansion. Higher prism powers are needed to counter this effect.

Concepts: Vertical integration, The Central, Celestial coordinate system, Singapore River


When a Gabor patch moves along a path in one direction while its internal texture drifts orthogonally to this path, it can appear to deviate from its physical path by 45 ̊ or more. This double-drift illusion is different from other motion-induced position shift effects in several ways: it has an integration period of over a second; the illusory displacement that accumulates over a second or more is orthogonal to rather than along the motion path; the perceptual deviations are much larger; and they have little or no effect on eye movements to the target. Here we investigated the underlying neural mechanisms of the motion integration and position processing for this double-drift stimulus by testing possible anatomical constraints on its magnitude. We found that the illusion was reduced at the vertical and horizontal meridians when the perceptual path would cross or be driven toward the meridian but not at other locations or other motion directions. The disruption of the accumulation of the position error at both the horizontal and vertical meridians suggests a central role of quadrantic areas in the generation of this type of motion-induced position shift.

Concepts: Effects unit, Shift work, Effect, The Target, Celestial coordinate system, Sense


Nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels of positively charged layered double hydroxide (LDH) single-layer nanosheet (SLNS) cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) were synthesized. Especially, the LDH SLNSs used here were pre-synthesized via an aqueous synthetic route without using organic solvents and modifiers. The obtained LDH/PNIPAM NC hydrogels were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, and DSC. The mechanical and thermoresponsive properties were determined using tensile, compression, and swelling/deswelling tests. Interestingly, different network structures are observed for the NC hydrogels along the horizontal and vertical directions; those along the horizontal direction exhibit a fine and uniform sponge-like network structure while those along the vertical direction exhibit a hierarchical layered architecture. Compared with the conventional N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide cross-linked PNIPAM hydrogel, the NC hydrogels exhibit extraordinary deformability and stretchability and obviously improved thermoresponsive swelling/deswelling characteristics. Furthermore, the fracture elongation observed here is obviously higher than those reported for negatively charged clay/PNIPAM NC hydrogels. With the increase in the LDH content from 0.8 to 2.0 wt%, the fracture strength and the compressive strength at an 85% strain increase from 23.5 to 37.2 kPa and from 0.15 to 0.57 MPa, respectively, while the fracture elongation decreases from 2689 to 2202%. The mechanism for the improved mechanical performances of the NC hydrogels is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on LDH/PNIPAM hydrogels. This work provides a green synthesis route for LDH-containing NC hydrogels. The new NC hydrogels may have great potential applications such as in tissue engineering, drug vehicles, and sorbents.

Concepts: Celestial coordinate system, Materials science, Compressive stress, Horizontal plane, Vertical direction, Tensile strength, Compressive strength, Electric charge


Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun’s direct beam, by diffuse sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface, and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy, and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of sun zenith angles, wind speeds, and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column. Diffuse-sky irradiance is usually greater than direct-sun irradiance at wavelengths below 330 nm, and reflected and water-leaving irradiance accounts for less than 20% of the UV exposure on a vertical surface. Total exposure depends strongly on solar zenith angle and azimuth angle relative to the sun. Sea surface roughness affects the UV exposures by only a few percent. For very clear waters and the sun high in the sky, the UV index within the water can be greater than 10 at depths down to two meters, and greater than 6 down to 5 m. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Light, Oxygen, Sky, Sunlight, Celestial coordinate system, Zenith, Ultraviolet, Sun


A dual-frequency direct detection Doppler lidar is demonstrated using a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) at 1.5 μm. The so-called double-edge technique is implemented by using a dual-frequency laser pulse, rather than using a double-channel Fabry-Perot interferometer. Such a modification to the reported lidars enhances the frequency stability in the system level. Using the time-division multiplexing method, only one piece of SNSPD is used in the optical receiver, making the system simplified and robust. The SNSPD is adopted to enhance the temporal resolution since it offers merits of high quantum efficiency, low dark count noise, no after-pulsing probability, and a high maximum count rate. Two telescopes that point westward and northward at a zenith angle of 30° are used to detect the line-of-sight wind components, which are used to synthesize the horizontal wind profile. Horizontal wind profiles up to an altitude of about 2.7 km are calculated with vertical spatial/temporal resolution of 10 m/10 s. Wind dynamic evolution and vertical wind shears are observed clearly.

Concepts: Wind shear, Multiplexing, Optics, Horizontal coordinate system, Time-division multiplexing, Laser, Zenith, Celestial coordinate system


Integrating the advantages of INS (inertial navigation system) and the star sensor, the stellar-inertial navigation system has been used for a wide variety of applications. The star sensor is a high-precision attitude measurement instrument; therefore, determining how to validate its accuracy is critical in guaranteeing its practical precision. The dynamic precision evaluation of the star sensor is more difficult than a static precision evaluation because of dynamic reference values and other impacts. This paper proposes a dynamic precision verification method of star sensor with the aid of inertial navigation device to realize real-time attitude accuracy measurement. Based on the gold-standard reference generated by the star simulator, the altitude and azimuth angle errors of the star sensor are calculated for evaluation criteria. With the goal of diminishing the impacts of factors such as the sensors' drift and devices, the innovative aspect of this method is to employ static accuracy for comparison. If the dynamic results are as good as the static results, which have accuracy comparable to the single star sensor’s precision, the practical precision of the star sensor is sufficiently high to meet the requirements of the system specification. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Concepts: Test method, Celestial coordinate system, Functional specification, Measurement, Azimuth, Dead reckoning, Inertial navigation system, Accuracy and precision


An investigation of the scaling characteristics of vegetation and temperature data derived from LANDSAT data was undertaken for a heterogeneous area in Tamil Nadu, India. A wavelet-based multiresolution technique decomposed the data into large-scale mean vegetation and temperature fields and fluctuations in horizontal, diagonal, and vertical directions at hierarchical spatial resolutions. In this approach, the wavelet coefficients were used to investigate whether the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) fields exhibited self-similar scaling behaviour. In this study, l-moments were used instead of conventional simple moments to understand scaling behaviour. Using the first six moments of the wavelet coefficients through five levels of dyadic decomposition, the NDVI data were shown to be statistically self-similar, with a slope of approximately -0.45 in each of the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal directions of the image, over scales ranging from 30 to 960 m. The temperature data were also shown to exhibit self-similarity with slopes ranging from -0.25 in the diagonal direction to -0.20 in the vertical direction over the same scales. These findings can help develop appropriate up- and down-scaling schemes of remotely sensed NDVI and LST data for various hydrologic and environmental modelling applications. A sensitivity analysis was also undertaken to understand the effect of mother wavelets on the scaling characteristics of LST and NDVI images.

Concepts: Celestial coordinate system, Thermoception, Statistics, Horizontal plane, Vertical direction, Similarity, Wavelet, Tamil Nadu


Optical switches connect optical circuits, and route optical signals in networks. Nano-electromechanical systems can in principle enable compact and power-effective switches that can be integrated in photonic circuits. We proposed an optical switch based on four coupled waveguides arranged in three-dimensional configuration. The switching operation is controlled by a cantilever displacement of only 55 nm. Simulations show that our proposed device requires a low switching voltage down to 3V and can operate at frequencies in the MHz range. Our results also pave the way towards novel optical components that electromechanically manipulate light in both the horizontal and the vertical direction in photonic circuits.

Concepts: Wavelength, Pitch, Celestial coordinate system, Horizontal plane, Frequency, Electromagnetic radiation, Vertical direction, Optics


We conducted two experiments (total N = 81) to investigate the basis for the large-scale horizontal-vertical illusion (HVI), which is typically measured as 15%-20% and has previously been linked to the presence of a ground plane. In a preliminary experiment, vertical rods of similar angular extents that were either large (4.5-7.5 m) and far, or small (0.9-1.5 m) and near, were matched to horizontal extents in a virtual environment by adjustment of horizontal gaps or rods. Large/far objects showed a larger HVI (∼13%) than did small objects (∼7%), as has been shown before, but the horizontal gap normally used to measure the large-scale HVI was not the source of the larger bias. In the second experiment, we found that simply separating the comparison rod in depth from the vertical rod (thus forcing an evaluation of size at a distance) was sufficient to produce a large HVI (17%), even with small rods. The results are interpreted in light of evidence that the large-scale HVI is dependent on ground plane orientation and may be related to differential angular expansion in the visual coding of elevation and azimuth. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Cone cell, Geodesy, Retina, Photoreceptor cell, Test method, Celestial coordinate system, Eye, Visual system


Diffuse rings from amorphous materials sit on a steep background resulting in a monotonically decreasing intensity over scattering vector length, frequently with no clear local maximum that could be used to determine the center of the ring. The novelty of the method reported here is that it successful processes such weak patterns. It is based on separating the angular dependence of the positions of the maxima on the azimuthal angle in the measured two-dimensional pattern for a manually preselected peak. Both pattern center and elliptical distortion are simultaneously refined from this angular dependence. Both steps are based on nonlinear least square fitting, using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. It can be successfully applied to any amorphous patterns provided they were recorded with experimental conditions that facilitate dividing them into sectors with acceptable statistics. Patterns with the center shifted to the camera corner (recording a quadrant of a ring) can also be reliably evaluated, keeping precalibrated values of the elliptical distortion fixed during the fit. Finally, the limited number of counts in any pattern is overcome by cumulating many patterns (from equivalent areas) into a single pattern. Eliminating false effects is facilitated by masking out unwanted parts of any recorded pattern from processing.

Concepts: Celestial coordinate system, Angle, Spherical coordinate system, Functional analysis, Convex function, Mathematics, Vector space, Maxima and minima