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Concept: Casual

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Aim:  Do different clothing styles have an influence on the doctor-patient-parent relationship and which kind of outfit is preferred by children and parents. Methods:  One hundred and seven children and 72 parents were visited by a paediatrician randomly wearing one of the three different outfits (casual, semiformal, formal) during a hospital stay. Parents and children between 6 and 18 years were then interviewed about their opinion by use of a semi-structured questionnaire, while children between 0 and 6 years were observed concerning their behaviour during the examination. Results:  Using a ‘likert scale’, the casual outfit received the best mark by 95.5% of parents (58.3% in the semiformal, 30.8% in the formal group). The degree of the parents' trust in the paediatrician was comparable in all three groups. In children between 6 and 18 years, the casual dress was rated highest in 100%. In children between 0 and 6 years, the outfit had no significant influence on the patients' behaviour. Conclusion:  Apparently, parents do not only tolerate a casual outfit, but even prefer it without any loss of trust. The same holds true for children between 6 and 18 years. For younger children, the paediatricians' outfit seems to play no major role.

Concepts: Motivation, Scale, Preference, Degree of a polynomial, Likert scale, Clothing, Dress code, Casual

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To clarify the causal relationship between migraine and atopic disorders in children and adolescents.

Concepts: Causality, Atopy, Atopic dermatitis, Casual

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Objective: To examine whether company compliance with RS-17 influences the characterization of the casual nexus in physical therapists' expert reports of cumulative trauma disorders in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: The sample was composed of seven physical therapists who provided expert testimony regarding cumulative trauma disorder cases in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collection was performed across two stages. In the first stage, the experts answered a sociodemographic survey and requested the identification numbers of recent cases where expert testimony was provided to characterize the causal nexus. In the second stage, the researchers went to the labor court to collect expert testimony data. These experts indicated that of 75 total cases, 31% (N=23) of the companies fulfilled RS-17, whereas 69% (N=52) did not comply with the law. Results: Among the organizations that complied with legislation, 30% of the analyzed expert testimonies showed a positive causal nexus. However, of the companies that did not comply with RS-17, 71% of the expert testimonies revealed a causal nexus. These results indicate that the breach of the law increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined by 54.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that failure to comply with RS-17 significantly increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined in physical therapists' expert testimony of cumulative trauma disorders.

Concepts: Stage, Multistage rocket, Expert, Expert witness, Casual, Repetitive strain injury, The Expert, The Breach

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To compare anatomo-electro-clinical findings between patients with epilepsy associated with leukoaraiosis only (EAL) and patients with a well-defined vascular lesion, i.e. post-stroke epilepsy (PSE).

Concepts: Causality, Temporal lobe, Cerebrum, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Lobe, Casual

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To assess (i) the extent to which urinary supersaturation (SS) has successfully discriminated between stone formers (SF) and healthy individuals (N), (ii) whether absolute SS has diagnostic worth and (iii) whether high SS is the fundamental cause of stone formation per se.

Concepts: Causality, Risk factor, Casual

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This study examined bidirectional relationships among emerging adults' involvement in casual hook up sex and attitudes about sex and love relationships. At the start and end of their first year in college, undergraduates (N = 163) responded to measures of sexual behavior, sexual attitudes, and attitudes about love relationships. In cross-sectional analyses, attitudes about sex and love both were associated with involvement in casual hook up sex. In prospective analyses, initial attitudes about sexual instrumentality uniquely predicted involvement in later hook up sex, even after controlling for past hook up sex. Furthermore, involvement in hook up sex during the first year of college predicted greater sexual permissiveness and comfort with casual genital contact, even after controlling for initial sexual attitudes and hook up behaviors. None of the associations between attitudes and behavior were qualified by gender. Experiences of causal hook up sex appear to have implications primarily for emerging adults' attitudes about sexual interactions rather than their attitudes about love relationships.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Biology, Behavior, Human sexual behavior, Human behavior, TheStart, Love, Casual