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Concept: Cashew nutshell liquid


This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials.

Concepts: Nut, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid, Anacardic acid


Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice. A total of 400 Ae. aegypti larvae (third larval stage) were treated with TaLCC-20 concentrations of 0.05 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, or 5 mg/L (ppm). Twenty pregnant female mice were also orally administered TaLCC-20 at doses of 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), and 10 animals were given only drinking water at 0.1 mL/10 g b.w. (orally). The results of a larvicide test demonstrated that 5 mg/mL TaLCC-20 killed 100% of larvae within three hours, which is comparable to the gold standard indicated by the Ministry of Health. Overall, these results show that TaLCC-20 is an efficient larvicide that does not induce genetic damage. In addition, changes in reproductive performance and embryo-fetal development appear positive, and the formulation is cost effective. Therefore, TaLCC-20 is an important product in the exploration of natural larvicides and can assist in fighting mosquitos as vectors for dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus, which are emerging/re-emerging and require proper management to ensure minimal harm to the human population. Therefore, TaLCC-20 can be considered a key alternative to commercial products, which are effective yet toxigenic.

Concepts: Larva, Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Aedes, Dengue fever, Mosquito control, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid


The main aim of the present study is to extract and characterize cashew nut shell (CNS) starch and walnut shell cellulose (WNC) for development of cellulose reinforced starch films. Moreover, the extraction and characterization of pomegranate peel extract, for incorporation with CNS-WNC films, was investigated. CNS starch was examined to be a moderate amylose starch with 26.32 ± 0.43% amylose content. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS starch was found to be 310 °C. Walnut shell cellulose was found to have high crystallinity index of 72%, with two thermal degradation temperatures of 319 °C and 461 °C. 2% WN cellulose reinforced CNS starch films were examined to have good oxygen transfer rate, mechanical and physical properties. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS-WNC starch films were found to be at the range of 298-302 °C. Surface roughness of CNS-WNC starch films were found to be increasing with increase in concentration of cellulose in films. Hydroxymethylfurfurole, Benzene, 2-methoxy-1,3,4-trimethyl and 1,2,3-Propanetriol, 1-acetate were found to be major active compounds present in hydrophilic extracts of Punica granatum peels. 2% WN cellulose reinforced starch films infused with hydrophilic active compounds of pomegranate peel was examined to be having good active package properties.

Concepts: Temperature, Starch, Fruit, Medicinal plants, Nut, Cashew, Pomegranate, Cashew nutshell liquid


Cashew nuts are important both nutritionally and industrially, but can also cause food allergies in some individuals. The present study aimed to assess the effect(s) of industrial processing on anacardic acids and allergens present in cashew nuts. Sample analyses were performed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, SDS-PAGE and immunoassay. The anacardic acid concentration ranged from 6.2 to 82.6mg/g during processing, and this variation was attributed to cashew nut shell liquid incorporation during storage and humidification. Dehydrated and selected samples did not significantly differ in anacardic acid content, having values similar to the raw sample. SDS-PAGE and immunoassay analysis with rabbit polyclonal sera and human IgE indicated only minor differences in protein solubility and antibody binding following processing steps. The findings indicate that appreciable amounts of anacardic acid remain in processed nuts, and that changes to cashew allergens during industrial processing may only mildly affect antibody recognition.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Asthma, Allergy, Fruit, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid, Anacardic acid


Cashew nut shells are agro-wastes produced from cashew nut processing factories and contain about 30-35 wt% oil called cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). This liquid is a mixture of four potential compounds, namely anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol and 2-methyl cardol. Various reactions have been developed to convert the components of cashew nut shell liquid into industrially important chemicals, and these materials are herein described. Such reactions employed in the transformation include transfer hydrogenation reactions, isomerization reactions, metathesis reactions, carbonylation reactions, polymerization reactions, isomerizing metathesis reaction, and isomerizing carbonylation reactions. Through these descriptions, one realizes that cashew nut shells are not a waste, but they are rather a good source of a potential liquid, CNSL, which is a promising renewable resource for synthesizing various industrial chemicals.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Chemical substance, Mixture, Chemical compound, Chemical industry, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid, Anacardic acid


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) contains phenolic lipids with aliphatic chains that are of commercial interest. In this work, a chromatographic method was developed to monitor and quantify anacardic acids (AnAc) in CNSL. Samples containing AnAc were analyzed on a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector, equipped with a reversed phase C18 (150 × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column using acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase both acidified with acetic acid to pH 3.0 in an isocratic mode (80:20:1). The chromatographic method showed adequate selectivity, as it could clearly separate the different AnAc. To validate this method, AnAc triene was used as an external standard at seven different concentrations varying from 50 to 1,000 μg mL-1. The Student’s t-test and F-test were applied to ensure high confidence for the obtained data from the analytical calibration curve. The results were satisfactory with respect to intra-day (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 0.60%) and inter-day (RSD = 0.67%) precision, linearity (y = 2,670.8x - 26,949, r2 > 0.9998), system suitability for retention time (RSD = 1.02%), area under the curve (RSD = 0.24%), selectivity and limits of detection (19.8 μg mg-1) and quantification (60.2 μg mg-1). The developed chromatographic method was applied for the analysis of different CNSL samples, and it was deemed suitable for the quantification of AnAc.

Concepts: Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Gas chromatography, Normal distribution, Nut, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an agricultural byproduct containing alkylphenols that has been shown to favorably change the rumen fermentation pattern only under experimentally fixed feeding conditions. Investigation of CNSL potency in rumen modulation under a variety of feeding regimens, and evidence leading to the understanding of CNSL action are obviously necessary for further CNSL applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of CNSL for rumen modulation under different dietary conditions, and to visually demonstrate its surfactant action against selected rumen bacteria.

Concepts: Fruit, Chord, Nut, Rumen, Cashew, Straw, Cashew nutshell liquid


The cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) from the cashew nut shell of Anacardium occidentale L. has been used to treat skin infections, cracks on soles of feet and cancerous ulcers. In this study, we have purified the technical CNSL, systematically evaluated its anticancer, antibacterial and wound healing activity. The LC-MS data revealed that the purified CNSL contains the compounds, cardanol, anacardic acid and methylcardol. It inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with an IC50 of 0.004%(v/v) and caused moderate mitotic block with spindle abnormality. It induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and accelerated wound closure in L929 cells. It inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis with an IC50 of 0.35%(v/v) and the treated cells exhibited elongated morphology indicating that suppression of cell division is one of the possible mechanisms of its action. The study suggests that the purified CNSL might have potential applications in anticancer and antibacterial drug development.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Cell cycle, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid, Anacardic acid


Several polyphenols from renewable sources were surveyed for dentin biomodification. However, phenols from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, Anacardium occidentale) and from Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva) extract have never been evaluated. The present investigation aimed to compare the dentin collagen crosslinking (biomodification) effectiveness of polyphenols from Aroeira stem bark extract, proanthocyanidins (PACs) from grape-seed extract (Vitis vinifera), cardol and cardanol from CNSL after clinically relevant treatment for one minute.

Concepts: Nut, Cashew, Cashew nutshell liquid, Anacardic acid, Anacardiaceae, Anacardium, Trees of Brazil, Wild Cashew


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), an agricultural renewable resource material, produces natural phenolic distillates such as cardanol. Cardanol condenses with formaldehyde at the ortho- and para-position of the phenolic ring under acidic or alkaline condition to yield a series of polymers of novolac- or resol-type phenolic resins. These phenolic resins may further be modified by epoxidation with epichlorohydrin to duplicate the performance of such phenolic-type novolacs (CFN). The structural changes during curing of blend samples of epoxy and carboxyl terminated poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) (CTBN) were studies by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The epoxy samples were synthesized by biomass material, cardanol. Blend sample was prepared by physical mixing of CTBN ranging between 0 and 20weightpercent CTBN liquid rubber into cardanol-based epoxidized novolac (CEN) resin. The FTIR spectrum of uncured blend sample clearly indicated that there appeared a band in the region of 3200-3500cm(-1) which might be due to the presence of phenolic hydroxyl group and OH group of the opened epoxide. Pure epoxy resin showed peaks near 856cm(-1) which might be due to oxirane functionality of the epoxidized novolac resin. Both epoxy and its blend sample was cured with polyamine. The cure temperature of CEN resin was found to be decreased by the incorporation of CTBN. The decomposition behavior was also studied by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Two-step decomposition behavior was observed in both epoxy and its blend samples.

Concepts: Oxygen, Alcohol, Functional group, Hydroxyl, Hydroxide, Cashew, Epoxide, Cashew nutshell liquid