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Concept: Case report


Foreign bodies lodged in the nasal cavity are a common problem in children, and their removal can be challenging. The published studies relating to the “mother’s kiss” all take the form of case reports and case series. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, English language, Nose, German language, Nasal cavity, Case series, Case report


Case The objective of this case report is to report the development of tardive dyskinesia in an African-American adolescent male after short-term treatment with metoclopramide 10 mg orally three times daily secondary to delayed gastric emptying. The patient developed symptoms of tardive dyskinesia after 2 days of therapy with metoclopramide. Metoclopramide was discontinued and diphenhydramine 50 mg was initially administered intravenously followed with 25 mg orally every 4 hours as needed. While there are case reports of drug-induced tardive dyskinesia after intravenous administration of metoclopramide, this is to our knowledge the first report of tardive dyskinesia after short-term treatment with oral metoclopramide in an adolescent. Conclusion Awareness of the risk of development of this adverse effect even with short-term treatment with metoclopramide and in younger patients is important.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Intravenous therapy, Report, Tardive dyskinesia, Bolus, Metoclopramide, Case report


Case reports are a time-honored, important, integral, and accepted part of the medical literature. Both the Journal of Medical Case Reports and the Case Report section of BioMed Central Research Notes are committed to case report publication, and each have different criteria. Journal of Medical Case Reports was the world’s first international, PubMed-listed medical journal devoted to publishing case reports from all clinical disciplines and was launched in 2007. The Case Report section of BioMed Central Research Notes was created and began publishing case reports in 2012. Between the two of them, thousands of peer-reviewed case reports have now been published with a worldwide audience. Authors now also have Cases Database, a continually updated, freely accessible database of thousands of medical case reports from multiple publishers. This informal editorial outlines the process and mechanics of how and when to write a case report, and provides a brief look into the editorial process behind each of these complementary journals along with the author’s anecdotes in the hope of inspiring all authors (both novice and experienced) to write and continue writing case reports of all specialties. Useful hyperlinks are embedded throughout for easy and quick reference to style guidelines for both journals.

Concepts: Medical terms, Academic publishing, Writing, Literature, Publishing, Writer, Publication, Case report


Guidelines often use the term expert opinion (EO) to qualify recommendations. We sought to identify the rationale and evidence type in EO recommendations. We searched multiple databases and websites for contemporary guidelines published in the last decade that used the term EO. We identified 1106 references, of which 69 guidelines were included (2390 recommendations, of which 907 were qualified as EO). A rationale for using EO designation was not provided in most (91%) recommendations. The most commonly cited evidence type was extrapolated from studies that did not answer guideline question (40% from randomised trials, 38% from observational studies and 2% from case reports or series). Evidence extrapolated from populations that were different from those addressed in the guideline was found in 2.5% of EO recommendations. We judged 5.6% of EO recommendations as ones that could have been potentially labelled as good practice statements. None of the EO recommendations were explicitly described as being solely dependent on the clinical experience of the panel. The use of EO as a level of evidence in guidelines remains common. A rationale for such use is not explicitly provided in most instances. Most of the time, evidence labelled as EO was indirect evidence and occasionally was very low-quality evidence derived from case series. We posit that the explicit description of evidence type, as opposed to using the label EO, may add clarity and transparency and may ultimately improve uptake of recommendations.

Concepts: Scientific method, Randomized controlled trial, Observational study, Expert, Circumstantial evidence, Expert witness, The Panel, Case report


The clinical case report has a long-standing tradition in the medical literature. While its scientific significance has become smaller as more advanced research methods have gained ground, case reports are still presented in many medical journals. Some scholars point to its limited value for medical progress, while others assert that the genre is undervalued. We aimed to present the various points of view regarding the merits and limitations of the case report genre. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed and select textbooks on epidemiology and medical research for articles and book-chapters discussing the merits and limitations of clinical case reports and case series.

Concepts: Scientific method, Medicine, Academic publishing, Science, Research, Case report form, Case series, Case report


In 2013, an independent group of researchers developed the CARE guidelines, a checklist to standardise reporting of case reports. This study assesses adherence to CARE guidelines among PubMed-indexed Indian medical journals in 2015 and the extent of endorsement of these guidelines by the journals. Case reports published in 2015 in journals indexed by PubMed, belonging to the medical stream, currently active, and that had an impact factor were included for analysis. Case series and journals that were published from India but for another country were excluded. Total adherence score and classification of adherence as “excellent”, “very good”, “good”, and “poor” as also adherence to individual components of the checklist were the outcome measures. A total of 162 journals were identified by the search strategy, of which 36 satisfied the selection criteria. In these 36 journals, 1178 case reports were published. We tested the association between the type of journal and impact factor with adherence by using the chi-squared test and generated crude odds ratios. All analyses were done at 5% significance. Based on the total percent score, no case report had excellent adherence, and 19% had good, 70.7% average, and 10% poor adherence, respectively. Among the sub-items, the best adherence was seen in the clinical findings [97.9%], followed by keywords [88.5%], and introduction [71.5%]. The items with extremely poor adherence were patient perspective [0%], informed consent [2.8%], and timeline [4.6%]. Journals with an impact factor of more than 1 had better adherence, relative to those with an impact factor lower than 1. Only one journal’s website mentioned the CARE guidelines. Greater awareness needs to be created among authors, peer reviewers, and editors about using these guidelines. As informed consent is a metric of autonomy, all stakeholders must ensure its reporting.

Concepts: Medical terms, Informed consent, Report, Academic publishing, Autonomy, Case series, Case report, The New England Journal of Medicine


Clinically hypomyopathic dermatomyositis is a rare disease that is important to recognize, investigate and treat early as it is associated with poor prognosis. In a proportion of patients, myositis specific antibodies could be negative, but with high clinical suspicion, myositis associated antibodies should be ordered. Anti-MDA-5 antibodies was reported in literature to be associated with severe and rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease, with few case reports of pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Pulmonology, Medical terms, Report, Pneumothorax, Clinical death, Case report


The incidence of primary spinal cord melanoma (PSCM) is very rare. Several case series and case reports have been published in the literature. However, the predictive factors of PSCM survival and management options are not discussed in detail.

Concepts: Report, Case series, Case report


Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare infiltrative vascular tumor that is potentially life-threatening when presenting with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP). KMP is clinically characterized as severe thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia and therefore is associated with a high mortality rate. There is no standard of cure for KHE currently. Potential medications, including corticosteroids, propranolol, and chemotherapy drugs such as sirolimus, are often used for alleviating KHE symptoms. Although some case reports of sirolimus treatment have shown promising results with recovered coagulant parameters, the off-target effects may cause severe problems. Here we describe 2 cases of infant patients with KHE and KMP who were scheduled to receive sirolimus on a long-term basis. However, both patients developed paroxysmal cough and tachypnea shortly after the onset of sirolimus treatment and succumbed to infection thereafter. This report reveals a potential risk of infection in sirolimus-treated infant patients. The fatal complication highlights the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis and serum sirolimus level monitoring to ensure the safe use of sirolimus in the treatment of infant patients with KHE.

Concepts: Infant, Disease, Death, Mortality rate, Medical terms, Pharmaceutical drug, Potential, Case report


Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign proliferative synovial disorder most commonly described to affect the knee in adults. Literature describing PVNS in the pediatric population is limited to 2 small case series and a handful of single-patient case reports. Within these studies, only 2 patients with PVNS of the hip are described.

Concepts: Orthopedic surgery, Synovial joint, Case report, Pigmented villonodular synovitis