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Concept: Carpal tunnel syndrome


Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity are common reasons for patients to seek care and undergo ambulatory. The objective of our study was to assess the overall and age-adjusted utilization rates of rotator cuff repair, shoulder arthroscopy performed for indications other than rotator cuff repair, carpal tunnel release, and wrist arthroscopy performed for indications other than carpal tunnel release in the United States. We also compared demographics, indications, and operating room time for these procedures.

Concepts: United States, Rotator cuff, Arthroscopy, Carpal tunnel syndrome


The boom in computer use and concurrent high rates in musculoskeletal complaints and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among users have led to a controversy about a possible link. Most studies have used cross-sectional designs and shown no association. The present study used longitudinal data from two large complementary cohorts to evaluate a possible relationship between CTS and the performance of computer work.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Syndromes, Computer, Computer program, Wrist, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve


This study investigates the results of a questionnaire, provocative tests, and ultrasonographic measurements of carpal tunnel morphological parameters in intensive and nonintensive electronic device users.

Concepts: Electronics, Ulnar nerve, Student, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Carpus, Flexor retinaculum of the hand, Transverse engine


This CORR Insights™ is a commentary on the article “Ultrasound as a first line test in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: a cost effectiveness analysis” by John R Fowler and colleagues available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2662-3 .

Concepts: Costs, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome


OBJECTIVE: To compare ultrasound measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) at different anatomical landmarks and to assess the value of power Doppler signals within the median nerve for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: A prospective study of 135 consecutive patients with suspected CTS undergoing two visits within 3 months. A final diagnosis of CTS was established by clinical and electrophysiological findings. CSA was sonographically measured at five different levels at forearm and wrist; and CSA wrist to forearm ratios or differences were calculated. Intraneural power Doppler signals were semiquantitatively graded. Diagnostic values of different ultrasound methods were compared by receiver operating characteristic curves using SPSS. RESULTS: CTS was diagnosed in 111 (45.5%) wrists; 84 (34.4%) had no CTS and 49 (20.1%) were possible CTS cases. Diagnostic values were comparable for all sonographic methods to determine median nerve swelling, with area under the curves ranging from 0.75 to 0.85. Thresholds of 9.8 and 13.8 mm(2) for the largest CSA of the median nerve yielded a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 92%. A power Doppler score of 2 or greater had a specificity of 90% for the diagnosis of CTS. Sonographic median nerve volumetry revealed a good reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Sonographic assessment of median nerve swelling and vascularity allows for a reliable diagnosis of CTS. Determination of CSA at its maximal shape offers an easily reproducible tool for CTS classification in daily clinical practice.

Concepts: Diagnosis, Medical ultrasonography, Wrist, Ulnar nerve, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve, Carpus


BACKGROUND: Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (C.T.S) and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes) and C.T.S. METHODS: Employees (461) of a Governmental data entry & processing unit accepted to participated in a cross-sectional study (response rate: 84.1%). A questionnaire was distributed to the participants with the aim to obtain information on socio-demographics, and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked about previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with positive personal history of CTS/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus cases identified through clinical examination. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated-for both case definitions- that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR=2.23;95% CI=1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR=2. 41; 95%CI=1.36-4.25). A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and the development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and development of CTS.

Concepts: Epidemiology, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Wrist, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve, Keystroke logging


The effectiveness of acupuncture for managing carpal tunnel syndrome is uncertain, particularly in patients already receiving conventional treatments (e.g., splinting). We aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture combined with splinting.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Syndromes, Acupuncture, Wrist, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve


Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Fertility, Gestational age, Carpal tunnel syndrome


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients with particular attention to entrapment syndromes. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients. Patients underwent clinical, neurophysiological and ultrasound evaluations. Dynamic ultrasound evaluation was also performed in healthy subjects as control group. RESULTS: Fifteen Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients and fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled. Most of patients presented tingling, numbness, cramps in their hands or feet. Clinical evaluation was normal in all patients. One patient was affected with carpal tunnel syndrome and one with ulnar nerve entrapment at elbow. One patient had an increased and hypoechoic ulnar nerve at elbow at ultrasound evaluation. Dynamic ultrasound evaluation of ulnar nerve at elbow showed, in patients, twelve subluxations and three luxations. In the control group dynamic evaluation showed one case of ulnar nerve luxation. CONCLUSION: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the occurrence of ulnar nerve subluxation and luxation between patients and control subjects. SIGNIFICANCE: The study shows an inconsistency between symptoms and neurophysiological and ultrasound evidences of focal or diffuse nerve involvement. The high prevalence of ulnar nerve subluxation/luxation at elbow in Ehlers-Danlos syndromes/hypermobility type patients could be explained by the presence of Osborne ligament laxity.

Concepts: Nervous system, Syndromes, Paresthesia, Wrist, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve entrapment


As carpal tunnel syndrome is more common in women, particularly around the menopause, female-related risk factors are suspected to play a role in its pathogenesis. We have assessed whether female hormone-related symptoms are associated with upper extremity disabilities in women undergoing carpal tunnel release. A total of 92 women with a mean age of 53 years scheduled for surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were assessed preoperatively for female hormone-related symptoms using the menopausal rating scale and other female-related factors such as menopausal status, pregnancy number and serum female hormone levels. Upper extremity disability was evaluated using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. DASH scores had a moderate correlation with total menopausal rating scale scores, but not with other female-related factors assessed. This study suggests that female hormone-related symptoms are associated with subjective upper extremity disabilities in women with carpal tunnel syndrome. This information may be helpful in addressing patients' complex symptoms or interpretation of outcomes in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Menopause, Growth hormone, Upper limb, Wrist, Carpal tunnel, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Median nerve