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Concept: Carp


While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

Concepts: Magnetic field, Germany, Czech Republic, Carp, Czechoslovakia, Nazi Germany, Czech language, Prague


BACKGROUND: The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. METHODS: Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). RESULTS: The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level.

Concepts: Digenea, Carp, Cyprinidae, Aquaculture, Snail, Gastropoda, Red River Delta, Black carp


The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M (0.776) and MMR = 0.753M (0.785). The scaling exponents for RMR (b r) and MMR (b m) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling.

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Energy, Carp, Basal metabolic rate, Carassius, Thermic effect of food


Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3 mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n = 45, 20.3 ± 0.13 g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp.

Concepts: Soybean, Koi, Common carp, Carp, Cyprinidae, Cyprinus, Jatropha, Biodiesel


Objective  To evaluate the physiological effect and response to noxious stimulation at five concentrations of MS-222 in koi (Cyprinus carpio). Study design  Prospective experimental study. Animals  Twenty-one healthy adult unknown sex koi fish weighing mean 450 ± SD 120 g. Methods  Each fish was exposed to five different concentrations of MS-222 (50, 70, 110, 150 and 190 mg L(-1) ) in a random sequence during the same anaesthetic event. For each concentration of MS-222, vital functions such as heart rate (HR) (via Doppler) and opercular rate (OpR) were recorded after a standardized induction period. Response to two noxious stimuli in the form of haemostat clamp pressure applied on the tail and the lip was evaluated, and blood was drawn to measure biochemical and blood gas values. Results  Decrease in response to noxious stimulation with an increase of MS-222 concentration both for the lip (p = 0.0027) and the tail (p < 0.0001) stimulus was observed. Biochemical values were unaffected by the concentration of MS-222 with the exception of lactate concentration which was weakly correlated with the duration of anaesthesia (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and the number of times the fish was clamped or bled prior to sampling (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). Opercular rate decreased with the increase in anaesthetic concentration, and HR was not affected. Conclusions and clinical relevance  Our results indicated a decrease in response to stimulus and a decrease in OpR that were associated with increased concentrations of MS-222. This may assist in establishing anaesthetic protocols using MS-222 in fish and supports the use of supramaximal pressure stimuli to teleost fish under variable MS-222 concentrations as a model for future studies.

Concepts: Measurement, Koi, Common carp, Carp, Cyprinidae, Cyprinus, Goldfish, Cypriniformes


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Parasitism, Carp, Cyprinidae, Organs, Hypophthalmichthys, Silver carp


Abstract Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. Received March 27, 2012; accepted July 2, 2012.

Concepts: Koi, Common carp, Carp, Cyprinidae, Goldfish, Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Mississippi National River and Recreation Area


Fish are often exposed to various molecules like pesticides. Some of these compounds get biomagnified within aquatic food web, inducing health hazards of consumers. However, behaviors of many pesticides are still unknown. This work aims to study the uptake and the elimination of some of them in muscle tissue of edible fish (azoxystrobin, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, carbendazim, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop, and thifensulfuron-methyl). Two freshwater fish species (Perca fluviatilis and Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to a mixture of these 13 pesticides, via multi-contaminated pellets, and then, eliminated. Compounds were measured in food, water and muscle tissue using multi-residues methods. Kinetics, biomagnification factors (BMFs) and half-lives (t1/2) were estimated and they did not show a large difference between the species. Muscular BMFs ranged from 2×10(-6) (mesosulfuron-methyl in perch) to 1×10(-3) (isoproturon and napropamid in perch) and t1/2 ranged from 0.8 (mesosulfuron-methyl in perch) to 40.3d (napropamid in carp). BMFs were also modeled as a function of K(ow) value. All BMF values were explained by the model, except for diflufenican which had a BMF lower than that expected by our modeling work, probably due to an efficient metabolism. Results led to the conclusion that none of these chemicals would probably be biomagnified within aquatic food webs.

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Fish, Muscle, Muscular system, Carp, Perch, Freshwater fish


We investigated mass mortalities of koi, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, experienced in South Indian fish farms by virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR detection, sequencing of capsid protein gene and transmission studies. Samples of moribund koi brought to the laboratory suffered continuous mortality exhibiting swimming abnormalities, intermittent surfacing and skin darkening. Irido-like virus was isolated from the infected fish in the indigenous snakehead kidney cell line (SNKD2a). Icosahedral virus particles of 100 to 120 nm were observed in the infected cell cultures, budding from the cell membrane. Virus transmission and pathogenicity studies revealed that horizontal transmission occurred associated with mortality. PCR analysis of infected fish and cell cultures confirmed the presence of Ranavirus capsid protein sequences. Sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene showed an identity of 99.9% to that of largemouth bass virus isolated from North America. Detection and successful isolation of this viral agent becomes the first record of isolation of a virus resembling Santee-Cooper Ranavirus from a koi and from India. We propose the name koi ranavirus to this agent.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Cell, Virus, Cell membrane, Virology, Carp


A fundamental consideration for the conservation of a species is the extent of its native range, that is, regions naturally colonized. However, both natural processes and human-mediated introductions can drive species distribution shifts. Ruling out the human-mediated introduction of a species into a given region is vital for its conservation, but remains a significant challenge in most cases. The crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) is a threatened freshwater fish thought to be native to much of Europe. However, its native status in England is based only on anecdotal evidence. Here, we devise an approach that can be used to empirically test the native status of English fauna. We use this approach, along with 13 microsatellite loci, population structure analyses, and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), to test hypotheses for the origins of C. carassius in England. Contrary to the current consensus, we find strong support for the human-mediated introduction of C. carassius into England during the 15th century. This result stimulates an interesting and timely debate surrounding motivations for the conservation of species. We discuss this topic, and the potential for continued conservation of C. carassius in England, despite its non-native origins.

Concepts: Scientific method, Ecology, Carp, Carassius, Crucian Carp, Commercial fish, Evidence, Anecdotal evidence