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Concept: Carl Jung

173

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that has been applied over the years to a group of children with motor disability and related service requirements. The first conceptions of cerebral palsy and our knowledge about aetiology and pathogeny allow us to assume that cerebral palsy existed in the Ancient World. Although there is lack of detailed medical descriptions from before the 19th century, mentions to cerebral palsy can be found in representational art, literary sources and paleopathology; however, because of the poor medical documentation, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy must remain a more or less well-justified supposition. In the Ancient World, the first medical description of cerebral palsy was made by Hippocrates in his work “Corpus Hippocraticum”. Concrete examples and definitions of cerebral palsy, however, did not emerge until the early 19th century with observations by William John Little; thus, Little was the first personality to intensely engage cerebral palsy. Towards the end of the 19th century, two more personalities emerged, adding to the historical hallmarks of cerebral palsy: William Osler and Sigmund Freud. The significant developments that have followed since then are all due to the contributions of these three personalities in the field of cerebral palsy.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Physician, Cerebral palsy, Sigmund Freud, 19th century, Hippocrates, Carl Jung, Hippocratic Corpus

28

Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to alleviate painful feelings of guilt. However, suffering also aims at averting loss of ego functions and hence loss of mental stability. This second function of suffering is discussed in the light of Freud’s observations of characters wrecked by success and Weiss’s ideas about mutual love as a threat to mental stability. Hawthorne’s portrayal of Arthur Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter (1850), biographical material about the author, material from his diaries, and material from a psychotherapy case and an analysis illustrate the function of suffering to preserve mental stability in the face of heightened success and happiness. Hawthorne, it is argued, intuitively grasped this function of suffering in his novel.

Concepts: Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Ego psychology, Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, Carl Jung

27

Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

Concepts: Present, Psychology, Sociology, Greek loanwords, Explanation, Psychiatry, Suicide, Carl Jung

26

Abstract Empathy has consistently been identified as an important quality of psychotherapists. Understanding unique ways that empathy emerges in group therapy may assist group therapists in fostering empathy. Rogerian and selected psychodynamic and interpersonal perspectives on empathy are discussed. Group psychotherapy poses a challenge for empathic responding, but also a rich opportunity for utilizing a more varied embodied approach to empathy.

Concepts: Psychology, Psychotherapy, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Psychodynamics, Psychiatric treatments, Drama therapy, Jacob L. Moreno

26

Providing psychotherapy changes the therapist in a variety of ways. This article discusses one doctoral student’s perceptions of these changes, such as increasing her patience, gratitude, and reliance on faith; stretching her ability to tolerate ambiguity; and influencing her interpersonal relationships.

Concepts: Psychology, Interpersonal relationship, Psychotherapy, Carl Jung

26

This study sought to determine whether using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would detect differences in personality preferences in first-year dental students admitted to the same dental school through different admission methods. First-year dental students admitted in 2000 and 2001 were given the MBTI instrument during orientation prior to the start of classes. In fall 2000, the Class of 2004 had 140 students, with 116 in the traditional track and twenty-four in the parallel problem-based learning (PBL) track. In fall 2001, the Class of 2005 had 144 students, all enrolled in the PBL curriculum. All students admitted to the PBL track had experienced a process that included evaluation of their participation in a small group. Students in the traditional track had individual interviews with faculty members. Both student groups were required to meet the same baseline grade point average and Dental Admission Test standards. In 2000, the PBL students showed personality preferences that were distinctly different from the personality preferences of traditional track students in the categories of Extroversion (89 percent PBL, 44 percent traditional) and Thinking (72 percent PBL, 39 percent traditional). In 2001, the all-PBL class retained the trend towards Extroversion (69 percent). This study suggests that admission method may effectively change the personality preference distribution exhibited by the students who are admitted to dental school.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Psychometrics, Carl Jung, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, David Keirsey, INFP, INFJ

25

Carl Jung categorizes the trickster as a psychological archetype and sets certain parameters for it. This article examines Audre Lorde’s trickster Afrekete in Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982) and poses the question of how typically archetypal a Black, female, lesbian trickster can be. Lorde occupies an idiosyncratic position in the canon in terms of race, gender, and sexual orientation. She bestows new qualities on her trickster coming from the peripheries she dwells in and challenges the Jungian model. Through Afrekete’s linguistic dexterity and sexual identity, Lorde transforms the trickster from being seemingly innocuous into a figure of resistance grounded in lesbian erotica.

Concepts: Psychology, Sexual orientation, Carl Jung, Mythology, Analytical psychology, Jungian archetypes, Audre Lorde, Zami: A New Spelling of My Name

23

The conceptual history of schizophrenia is marked by considerable dissent about its nosological status, and the question of whether it represents a distinct disease entity remains hotly debated. Another recurring feature in the conceptual history of schizophrenia is the reference to concepts of self and person. This paper brings in connection these two debates by interrogating the nosological function of “self” and “person” by means of a fictitious dialogue between Eugen Bleuler, the inventor of schizophrenia, and his contemporary Arthur Kronfeld. Introducing their respective accounts of schizophrenia with a special focus on how concepts of self and person figure therein, our analysis suggests that these concepts are primarily employed in an attempt to guarantee the nosological unity of schizophrenia: mediated by the concept of a core disturbance, alterations of the self or the person thus become the essential core of schizophrenia. Yet, rather than providing an easy solution to the nosological problem of the unity of schizophrenia, the concepts of self and person and their assumed disturbances are themselves fraught with debates about unity. We discuss these conceptual challenges in light of present-day nosological debates and the currently abounding research on the self.

Concepts: Debate, Idea, Concepts in metaphysics, Schizophrenia, Concept, Eugen Bleuler, Carl Jung, Concept map

17

The increasing use of the Internet and its array of social networks brings new ways for psychotherapists to find out information about their patients, often referred to as patient-targeted googling (PTG). However, this topic has been subject to little empirical research; there has been hardly any attention given to it in Germany and the rest of Europe and it has not been included in ethical guidelines for psychotherapy despite the complex ethical issues it raises.

Concepts: Psychology, Psychotherapy, History of the Internet, Carl Jung

12

Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4-9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother-child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother-child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child’s gender, and parenting stress were associated with children’s adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Family, Parent, Interpersonal relationship, Developmental psychology, Mother, Father, Nuclear family, Carl Jung