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Concept: Cardiovascular diseases


Adipokines, visfatin, apelin, vaspin and ghrelin have emerged as novel cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different exercise modalities on the aforementioned novel adipokines and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes mellitus, The Canon of Medicine, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Intima-media thickness, Cardiovascular diseases


: We investigated the relationship between the renin/aldosterone profiles of patients with essential hypertension and their prognosis using a long-term follow-up study design.

Concepts: Cardiovascular diseases, Medical conditions related to obesity


The goal of this study was to compare the performance of several measures of carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) as predictors of cardiovascular events (CVEs), and to investigate whether they add to the predictive accuracy of Framingham risk factors (FRFs).

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Prediction, Futurology, Common carotid artery, Intima-media thickness, Cardiovascular diseases


B-mode ultrasound measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a widely used marker for atherosclerosis and is associated with future cardiovascular events. This article provides a review and meta-analysis of the published evidence on the association of CIMT with future cardiovascular events and its additional value to traditional cardiovascular risk prediction models.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Systematic review, Low-density lipoprotein, Intima-media thickness, Cardiovascular diseases, Lipoprotein(a)


Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with associated volume overload is the most common cause of hospitalization in heart failure patients. When accompanied by worsening renal function, it is described as a cardiorenal syndrome and is a therapeutic challenge. Initial treatment commonly encompasses intravenous diuretics however, suboptimal results and high rehospitalization rates have led experts to search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Recent technological advances in extracorporeal therapies have made ultrafiltration a feasible option for treatment of hypervolemia in ADHF. Recent large randomized trials have compared the efficacy and safety of ultrafiltration with diuretics. Additionally, the benefits of novel pharmacologic approaches, including combining hypertonic saline with diuretics, have recently been studied. The aim of this review is to discuss the developments in both pharmacologic and extracorporeal methods for treating hypervolemia in ADHF and acute cardiorenal syndrome.

Concepts: Medicine, Heart failure, Randomized controlled trial, Hemodialysis, Hypovolemia, Cardiovascular diseases, Acute decompensated heart failure, Aquapheresis


OBJECTIVE To report outcomes in free flap reconstructive surgery in the setting of calcified arteriosclerosis affecting the flap pedicle. DESIGN Retrospective review, including a detailed analysis of medical records, histopathologic findings, and a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A total of 1329 consecutive microvascular free tissue transfers were performed by 2 reconstructive surgeons at a university-affiliated tertiary care medical center from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2011. Clinical notes, operative notes, and pathology reports were systematically reviewed to identify 44 patients (3%) with calcified arteriosclerosis involving the flap vascular pedicle. A comprehensive medical record review was performed for the included patients, detailing patient-related characteristics, flap survival, and incidence of perioperative complications. RESULTS A history of arteriosclerosis was identified preoperatively in 18 patients (41%). Eight patients (18%) were specifically recognized clinically and histologically to have a variant of arteriosclerosis known as Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis. In total, fibula osteocutaneous free flap was performed in 30 patients, radial forearm in 8 patients, rectus abdominus in 3 patients, latissimus dorsi in 2 patients, and parascapular in 1 patient. Perioperative complications occurred in 17 patients (39%), with the most common being pulmonary (14%) and cardiac (9%). Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 137 months, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 21 months. The mean length of hospital stay was 12 days. There was a 0% incidence of total flap failure and a 7% incidence of partial flap necrosis. CONCLUSION Although technically challenging, successful microvascular free flap reconstruction can be achieved despite the presence of vascular calcifications affecting the flap vascular pedicle.

Concepts: Medicine, Atherosclerosis, Hospital, Cardiology, Surgery, Physician, Cardiovascular diseases, Free flap


Hypertension is the most common non-communicable disease and the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the world. It presents an important public health challenge in both economically developed and developing countries. In 2006, the Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk programme was launched. The programme recruited men aged 40-54 and women aged 50-64 without overt cardiovascular disease. We analysed a group of 23,204 subjects included in the programme at the primary level. Arterial hypertension was present in 57.6% of the subjects: 63.2% in the females and 49.2% in the males. In the hypertensive middle-aged subjects, grade 1 hypertension was present in 53.1%, grade 2 in 22.4%, and grade 3 in merely 5.9% of the subjects. The prevalence of a minimum of three concomitant risk factors among the hypertensive patients was 78.0%, compared with 52.1% in the patients without hypertension (p < 0.001). Blood pressure goals were attained in 20.8% of the hypertensive women and in 14.4% of the hypertensive men. In Lithuania, a high prevalence of hypertension was characteristic of middle-aged subjects. Although the blood pressure elevation had not reached high levels, the presence of at least three risk factors concomitant to hypertension was more expressed in them compared with the non-hypertensive subjects.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood vessel, Blood pressure, Cardiovascular diseases


Events that induce emotional stress and frustration in a large number of subjects under specific circumstances, such as earthquakes, war conditions, and sporting occasions, may increase the incidence of cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. This report describes a married couple who expressed an apparently passionate interest in football with hazardous consequences after a tense football match during the FIFA 2014 World Championships. A series of emotional stressors initiated by defeat in this football game lead to cardiac arrest in a 58-year-old man caused by a thrombotic occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and ending in the death of the patient. An hour and 15 minutes after the onset of cardiac arrest of the patient, his 64-year-old wife also had chest pain caused by an acute midventricular takotsubo syndrome. She survived the acute stage of the disease, and there was complete resolution of the left ventricular dysfunction.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Artery, Ventricular fibrillation, Sudden cardiac death, Cardiovascular diseases


-The association between passive smoking exposure in childhood and adverse cardiovascular health in adulthood is not well understood. Using a 26-year follow-up study, we examined if childhood exposure to passive smoking was associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque in young adults.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular diseases, Adult, Coming of age


Cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a common pathological feature of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Familial Aβ mutations, such as Dutch-E22Q and Iowa-D23N, can cause severe cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid that serves as a potent driver of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. The distinctive features of vascular amyloid that underlie its unique pathological properties remain unknown. Here, we use transgenic mouse models producing CAA mutants (Tg-SwDI) or overproducing human wild-type Aβ (Tg2576) to demonstrate that CAA-mutant vascular amyloid influences wild-type Aβ deposition in brain. We also show isolated microvascular amyloid seeds from Tg-SwDI mice drive assembly of human wild-type Aβ into distinct anti-parallel β-sheet fibrils. These findings indicate that cerebrovascular amyloid can serve as an effective scaffold to promote rapid assembly and strong deposition of Aβ into a unique structure that likely contributes to its distinctive pathology.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Histopathology, Amyloid, Dementia, Beta amyloid, Mice, Cardiovascular diseases, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy