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Concept: Cannabaceae


Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. “Cascade” has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations.

Concepts: Inflammation, Nature, Antimicrobial, Chalcone, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol.

Concepts: Animal testing, Liver, Mouse, Beer, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


The repetitive content of the genome, once considered to be “junk DNA”, is in fact an essential component of genomic architecture and evolution. In this study, we used the genomes of three varieties of Cannabis sativa, three varieties of Humulus lupulus and one genotype of Morus notabilis to explore their repetitive content using a graph-based clustering method, designed to explore and compare repeat content in genomes that have not been fully assembled.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Human genome, Genome, Genomics, Genome size, Cannabaceae


There is an explosion in the number of labs analyzing cannabinoids in marijuana (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae) but existing methods are inefficient, require expert analysts, and use large volumes of potentially environmentally damaging solvents. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an accurate method for analyzing cannabinoids in cannabis raw materials and finished products that is more efficient and uses fewer toxic solvents. An HPLC-DAD method was developed for eight cannabinoids in cannabis flowers and oils using a statistically guided optimization plan based on the principles of green chemistry. A single-laboratory validation determined the linearity, selectivity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of the method. Amounts of individual cannabinoids above the limit of quantitation in the flowers ranged from 0.02 to 14.9% w/w, with repeatability ranging from 0.78 to 10.08% relative standard deviation. The intermediate precision determined using HorRat ratios ranged from 0.3 to 2.0. The LOQs for individual cannabinoids in flowers ranged from 0.02 to 0.17% w/w. This is a significant improvement over previous methods and is suitable for a wide range of applications including regulatory compliance, clinical studies, direct patient medical services, and commercial suppliers.

Concepts: Measurement, Detection limit, Accuracy and precision, Cannabis, Cannabinoid, Cannabis sativa, Cannabaceae


Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genotype, Evolution, Short tandem repeat, Humulus lupulus, Cannabaceae


A need exists for a reliable method for determining the geographical and botanical origin of hops. For this study three sets of samples were collected: the first set comprised five German samples, the second set comprised samples of hops from ten of the world’s major hop growing regions while the third comprised the four main Slovenian. The samples were analyzed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to obtain δ13C, δ15N and δ34S values. The δ15N (2.2 ‰ to 8.4 ‰) and δ34S (0.7 ‰ to 12.3 ‰) values were the most discriminating parameters for classifying hop according to geographical origin. ANOVA showed distinct groupings for eight out of the ten hop-growing regions. Although it was not possible to distinguish the geographical origin of hops based on δ13C (-28.9 ‰ to -24.7 ‰), in the case of botanical origin, δ13C values proved to be the most discriminative albeit with limited success.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Isotope, Isotopes, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Isotope ratio mass spectrometry, Cannabaceae


To investigate whether treatment with xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated chalconoid from Humulus lupulus (hops), is protective in a mouse model of light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD).

Concepts: Protection, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Women seeking alternatives to hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms often try botanical dietary supplements containing extracts of hops (Humulus lupulus L.). Hops contain 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), a potent phytoestrogen, the related flavanones 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) and isoxanthohumol (IX), and the prenylated chalcone xanthohumol (XN).

Concepts: Hormone, Menopause, Estrogen, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae, Humulus japonicus


Aging is associated with a deregulation of biological systems that lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, among other effects. Xanthohumol is the main preylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) whose antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties have been shown in recent years. In the present study, the possible protective effects of xanthohumol on liver alterations associated with aging were evaluated.

Concepts: Oxidative stress, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Paracetamol, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Cannabaceae


Prenylated chalcones and flavonoids from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), such as 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), are investigated for their health-beneficial and anticancer activities. We thus compared the oral bioavailability and safety of 6-PN and 8-PN in healthy young women and men and investigated their effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Concepts: Crossover study, PBMC, Humulus lupulus, Hops, Humulus, Structural isomer, Cannabaceae, Humulus japonicus