Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cancer treatments


In compliance with national and international guidelines, non-pregnant women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 should be treated by cervical conization. According to the definition of the large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) operation, the lesion needs to be resected, including the transformation zone. It is well known from the literature that the cone size directly correlates with the risk of preterm delivery in the course of a future pregnancy. Thus, it would be highly desirable to keep the cone dimension as small as possible while maintaining the same level of oncological safety.

Concepts: Childbirth, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Randomized controlled trial, Gynecology, Cervix, Cancer treatments, Loop electrical excision procedure, Cervical conization


Traditional response criteria may be insufficient to characterize full clinical benefits of anticancer immunotherapies. Consequently, endpoints such as durable response rate (DRR; a continuous response [complete or partial objective response] beginning within 12 months of treatment and lasting ≥6 months) have been employed. There has not, however, been validation that DRR correlates with other more traditional endpoints of clinical benefit such as overall survival.

Concepts: Immune system, Oncology, Microbiology, The Canon of Medicine,, Viruses, Cancer treatments, Immunotherapy


Delivery of PLGA (poly [D, L-lactide-co-glycolide])-based biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to antigen presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, has potential for cancer immunotherapy.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Protein, Dendritic cell, Antigen-presenting cell, Cancer treatments, Cancer immunotherapy


To evaluate the clinical efficacy of systemic chemotherapy combined with intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion in advanced gastric cancer patients with malignant ascites.

Concepts: Immune system, Clinical trial, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Cancer treatments, Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion


The integration of genomics with immunotherapy has potential value for cancer vaccine development. Given the clinical successes of immune checkpoint modulators, interest in cancer vaccines as therapeutic options has been revived. Current data suggest that each tumor contains a unique set of mutations (mutanome), thus requiring the creation of individualized cancer vaccines. However, rigorous analysis of non-individualized cancer immunotherapy approaches across multiple cancer types and in the context of known driver alterations has yet to be reported. We therefore set out to determine the feasibility of a generalizable cancer vaccine strategy based on targeting multiple neoantigens in an HLA-A/B subtype-directed manner.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Oncology, Vaccine, Vaccination, Tumor, Cancer treatments, Cancer vaccine


Data guiding selection of nonsurgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are lacking. We therefore compared outcomes between stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for HCC.

Concepts: Cancer, Cancer treatments, Radiofrequency ablation


Both stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and immune- or targeted therapy play an increasingly important role in personalized treatment of metastatic disease. Concurrent application of both therapies is rapidly expanding in daily clinical practice. In this systematic review we summarize severe toxicity observed after concurrent treatment.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Cure, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Melanoma, Cancer treatments


To identify the value of the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting the overall survival (OS) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with Cyberknife followed by sequential S-1 chemotherapy.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Diffusion, Pancreatic cancer, Atomic diffusion, Cancer treatments


In countries with the best cancer outcomes, approximately 60% of patients receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment, which is one of the most cost-effective cancer treatments. Notably, around 40% of cancer cures include the use of radiotherapy, either as a single modality or combined with other treatments. Radiotherapy can provide enormous benefit to patients with cancer. In the past decade, significant technical advances, such as image-guided radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton therapy enable higher doses of radiotherapy to be delivered to the tumour with significantly lower doses to normal surrounding tissues. However, apart from the combination of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy with radiotherapy, little progress has been made in identifying and defining optimal targeted therapy and radiotherapy combinations to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Research Institute Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) formed a Joint Working Group with representatives from academia, industry, patient groups and regulatory bodies to address this lack of progress and to publish recommendations for future clinical research. Herein, we highlight the Working Group’s consensus recommendations to increase the number of novel drugs being successfully registered in combination with radiotherapy to improve clinical outcomes for patients with cancer.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Cancer treatments


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy is a novel strategy for cancer treatments in recent years. However, it was observed that most patients treated with ICIs could not get benefit from the therapy, which led to the limitation of clinical application. Motivated by potent and durable efficacy of ICIs, oncologists endeavor to explore the mechanisms of resistance to ICIs and increase the drug sensitivity. It is known that heterogeneity of gut microbiome in populations may result in different outcomes of therapy. In xenograft model, bacteria in gut have been proved as a crucial factor regulating immunotherapy efficacy. And the similar phenomenon was obtained in patients. In this review, we summarized relevant advancements about gut microbiome and ICIs. Furthermore, we focused on modulatory function of gut microbiome in ICIs therapy and possible antitumor mechanism of specific commensals in ICIs treatment. We propose that gut microbiome is an important predictive factor, and manipulation of gut microbiome is feasible to elevate response rate in ICIs therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Game theory, Scientific method, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Immunology, Cancer treatments