Concept: Cancer treatments
Traditional response criteria may be insufficient to characterize full clinical benefits of anticancer immunotherapies. Consequently, endpoints such as durable response rate (DRR; a continuous response [complete or partial objective response] beginning within 12 months of treatment and lasting ≥6 months) have been employed. There has not, however, been validation that DRR correlates with other more traditional endpoints of clinical benefit such as overall survival.
Delivery of PLGA (poly [D, L-lactide-co-glycolide])-based biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) to antigen presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, has potential for cancer immunotherapy.
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of systemic chemotherapy combined with intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion in advanced gastric cancer patients with malignant ascites.
The integration of genomics with immunotherapy has potential value for cancer vaccine development. Given the clinical successes of immune checkpoint modulators, interest in cancer vaccines as therapeutic options has been revived. Current data suggest that each tumor contains a unique set of mutations (mutanome), thus requiring the creation of individualized cancer vaccines. However, rigorous analysis of non-individualized cancer immunotherapy approaches across multiple cancer types and in the context of known driver alterations has yet to be reported. We therefore set out to determine the feasibility of a generalizable cancer vaccine strategy based on targeting multiple neoantigens in an HLA-A/B subtype-directed manner.
Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
- Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
- Published over 2 years ago
Data guiding selection of nonsurgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are lacking. We therefore compared outcomes between stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for HCC.
Both stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and immune- or targeted therapy play an increasingly important role in personalized treatment of metastatic disease. Concurrent application of both therapies is rapidly expanding in daily clinical practice. In this systematic review we summarize severe toxicity observed after concurrent treatment.
Pre-treatment DWI as a predictor of overall survival in locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with Cyberknife radiotherapy and sequential S-1 therapy
- Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
- Published 4 months ago
To identify the value of the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting the overall survival (OS) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with Cyberknife followed by sequential S-1 chemotherapy.
In countries with the best cancer outcomes, approximately 60% of patients receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment, which is one of the most cost-effective cancer treatments. Notably, around 40% of cancer cures include the use of radiotherapy, either as a single modality or combined with other treatments. Radiotherapy can provide enormous benefit to patients with cancer. In the past decade, significant technical advances, such as image-guided radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton therapy enable higher doses of radiotherapy to be delivered to the tumour with significantly lower doses to normal surrounding tissues. However, apart from the combination of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy with radiotherapy, little progress has been made in identifying and defining optimal targeted therapy and radiotherapy combinations to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Research Institute Clinical and Translational Radiotherapy Research Working Group (CTRad) formed a Joint Working Group with representatives from academia, industry, patient groups and regulatory bodies to address this lack of progress and to publish recommendations for future clinical research. Herein, we highlight the Working Group’s consensus recommendations to increase the number of novel drugs being successfully registered in combination with radiotherapy to improve clinical outcomes for patients with cancer.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy is a novel strategy for cancer treatments in recent years. However, it was observed that most patients treated with ICIs could not get benefit from the therapy, which led to the limitation of clinical application. Motivated by potent and durable efficacy of ICIs, oncologists endeavor to explore the mechanisms of resistance to ICIs and increase the drug sensitivity. It is known that heterogeneity of gut microbiome in populations may result in different outcomes of therapy. In xenograft model, bacteria in gut have been proved as a crucial factor regulating immunotherapy efficacy. And the similar phenomenon was obtained in patients. In this review, we summarized relevant advancements about gut microbiome and ICIs. Furthermore, we focused on modulatory function of gut microbiome in ICIs therapy and possible antitumor mechanism of specific commensals in ICIs treatment. We propose that gut microbiome is an important predictive factor, and manipulation of gut microbiome is feasible to elevate response rate in ICIs therapy.
Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events. Compared with systemic immunomodulation, local immunomodulation may enable more effective treatment at lower doses and, at the same time, prevent systemic toxicity. Local delivery of engineered three-dimensional scaffolds may fulfil this role by acting as synthetic immune niches that boost anticancer immunity. In this Opinion article, we highlight the potential of scaffold-based adoptive cell transfer and scaffold-based cancer vaccines that, although applied locally, can promote systemic antitumour immunity. Furthermore, we discuss how scaffold-based cancer immunotherapy may contribute to the development of the next generation of cancer treatments.