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Concept: Calcium hydroxide

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Calcium hydroxide has been used extensively in dentistry for a century. Despite its widespread use as a pulp-capping agent, its mechanisms of action still remain ambiguous. Understanding its modes of action will lead to a broader understanding of the mechanisms associated with induced dentinogenesis and help in optimizing the currently available agents to target specific regenerative processes to obtain the best possible clinical outcomes. A literature search relating to mechanisms of dentinogenesis of calcium hydroxide up to December 2011 was carried out using pubmed and MEDLINE database searches as well as manual searching of cross-references from identified studies. Resulting suggestions regarding dentinogenic mechanisms of calcium hydroxide range from direct irritating action of the material to induction of release of biologically active molecules. The purpose of this article is to discuss various mechanisms through which calcium hydroxide may induce tertiary dentinogenesis in the light of observations made in included studies.

Concepts: Chemistry, Search engine optimization, Agent, Searching, Calcium hydroxide

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To compare the treatment outcomes when calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate are used for partial pulpotomy in cariously-exposed young permanent molars in a randomized control trial.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Magnesium, Calcium, Oxide, Calcium carbonate, Hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium hydroxide

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To study the effect of feeding calcium hydroxide-treated or vitamin E-supplemented cottonseed meal (CSM) incorporated diets on plasma gossypol, blood parameters and animal performance, 24 male Bikaneri lambs of 6-7 months of age and of uniform body weight were divided into four groups of six animals each in a completely randomized design and respectively fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 20 % soybean meal (CON) or 40 % raw CSM (RCSM), 40 % raw CSM supplemented with 500 IU of vitamin E per head per day (ERCSM), and 40 %, 1.5 % calcium hydroxide-treated CSM (CaCSM) along with ad libitum wheat straw throughout 510 days of experimental feeding. The lambs on all the diets grew linearly throughout the experimental period. The total weight gain, in turn the average daily gain (ADG), was not affected by dietary variations. The daily intake of dry matter, crude protein (CP), digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were found comparable among lambs of all the groups. Though total gossypol intake was similar in RCSM, ECSM and CaCSM groups, however, free gossypol intake was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in RCSM, ECSM groups as compared to CaCSM group. Serum iron and blood hemoglobin levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in RCSM group as compared to CaCSM and CON groups, and ALT activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher on RCSM group as compared to other groups. Plasma gossypol and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in RCSM group as compared to CaCSM and ERCSM groups. However, there was no significant difference in the concentration of other blood/serum biochemical constituents among the lambs on different groups. Based on the results, it may be concluded that feeding of 40 % CSM in the concentrate mixture of the diet in Bikaneri lambs did not have any major adverse effect in blood parameters and animal performance. Either calcium hydroxide treatment or vitamin E supplementation did not produce any major additional benefits.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Protein, Nutrition, Blood, Red blood cell, Statistical significance, Food, Calcium hydroxide

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The chemical-physical properties of novel and long-standing calcium silicate cements versus conventional pulp capping calcium hydroxide biomaterials were compared.

Concepts: Calcium hydroxide, Calcium compounds

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Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of slow mixing conditions on magnesium hydroxide floc size and strength and to determine the turbidity and total suspended solid (TSS) removal efficiencies during coagulation of highly turbid suspensions. A highly turbid kaolin clay suspension (1,213 ± 36 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) was alkalized to pH 10.5 using a 5 M NaOH solution; liquid bittern (LB) equivalent to 536 mg/L of Mg(2+) was added as a coagulant, and the suspension was then subjected to previously optimized fast mixing conditions of 100 rpm and 60 s. Slow mixing speed (20, 30, 40, and 50 rpm) and time (10, 20, and 30 min) were then varied, while the temperature was maintained at 20.7 ± 1 °C. The standard practice for coagulation-flocculation jar test ASTM D2035-13 (2013) was followed in all experiments. Relative floc size was monitored using an optical measuring device, photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA 2000). Larger and more shear resistant flocs were obtained at 20 rpm for both 20- and 30-min slow mixing times; however, given the shorter duration for the former, the 20-min slow mixing time was considered to be more energy efficient. For slow mixing camp number (Gt) values in the range of 8,400-90,000, it was found that the mixing speed affected floc size and strength more than the time. Higher-turbidity removal efficiencies were achieved at 20 and 30 rpm, while TSS removal efficiency was higher for the 50-rpm slow mixing speed. Extended slow mixing time of 30 min yielded better turbidity and TSS removal efficiencies at the slower speeds.

Concepts: Colloid, Physical quantities, Calcium hydroxide, Suspension, Total suspended solids, Flocculation, Turbidity, Settling

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In this study, we investigated the prevention of enzymatic urea hydrolysis in fresh urine by increasing the pH with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) powder. The amount of Ca(OH)2 dissolving in fresh urine depends significantly on the composition of the urine. The different urine compositions used in our simulations showed that between 4.3 and 5.8 g Ca(OH)2 dissolved in 1 L of urine at 25 °C. At this temperature, the pH at saturation is 12.5 and is far above the pH of 11, which we identified as the upper limit for enzymatic urea hydrolysis. However, temperature has a strong effect on the saturation pH, with higher values being achieved at lower temperatures. Based on our results, we recommend a dosage of 10 g Ca(OH)2 L(-1) of fresh urine to ensure solid Ca(OH)2 always remains in the urine reactor which ensures sufficiently high pH values. Besides providing sufficient Ca(OH)2, the temperature has to be kept in a certain range to prevent chemical urea hydrolysis. At temperatures below 14 °C, the saturation pH is higher than 13, which favors chemical urea hydrolysis. We chose a precautionary upper temperature of 40 °C because the rate of chemical urea hydrolysis increases at higher temperatures but this should be confirmed with kinetic studies. By considering the boundaries for pH and temperature developed in this study, urine can be stabilized effectively with Ca(OH)2 thereby simplifying later treatment processes or making direct use easier.

Concepts: Ammonia, Urine, Chemical reaction, PH, Sodium hydroxide, Hydroxide, Base, Calcium hydroxide

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) dressing on the dentinal tubule penetration of epoxy resin-based sealer (AH 26; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and tricalcium silicate-based sealer (BioRoot RCS; Septodont, Saint Maurdes Fosses, France).

Concepts: Sealant, Calcium hydroxide

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To evaluate postoperative pain and radiographic evidence of periapical healing in teeth with apical periodontitis treated in one-visit with an additional final irrigation using 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and to compare the results with conventional two-visit root canal treatment (RCT) with an intracanal calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing as a control group.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Calcium hydroxide

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This study intended to evaluate the angiogenic properties of vital pulp therapy materials including white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2), Geristore (Den-Mat, Santa Maria, CA), and nano WMTA biomaterials.

Concepts: Magnesium, Calcium, Oxide, Materials science, Calcium carbonate, Hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium hydroxide

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Pulpotomy is the surgical removal of the entire coronal pulp with preservation of the radicular pulp vitality. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomy of primary molars using two materials, biodentine and calcium hydroxide.

Concepts: Retrospective, Teeth, Calcium hydroxide