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Concept: Calcineurin

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Ser/thr phosphatases dephosphorylate their targets with high specificity, yet the structural and sequence determinants of phosphosite recognition are poorly understood. Calcineurin (CN) is a conserved Ca/calmodulin-dependent ser/thr phosphatase and the target of immunosuppressants, FK506 and cyclosporin A (CSA). To investigate CN substrate recognition we used X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, modeling, and in vivo experiments to study A238L, a viral protein inhibitor of CN. We show that A238L competitively inhibits CN by occupying a critical substrate recognition site, while leaving the catalytic center fully accessible. Critically, the 1.7 Å structure of the A238L-CN complex reveals how CN recognizes residues in A238L that are analogous to a substrate motif, “LxVP.” The structure enabled modeling of a peptide substrate bound to CN, which predicts substrate interactions beyond the catalytic center. Finally, this study establishes that “LxVP” sequences and immunosuppressants bind to the identical site on CN. Thus, FK506, CSA, and A238L all prevent “LxVP”-mediated substrate recognition by CN, highlighting the importance of this interaction for substrate dephosphorylation. Collectively, this work presents the first integrated structural model for substrate selection and dephosphorylation by CN and lays the groundwork for structure-based development of new CN inhibitors.

Concepts: Protein structure, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Immunosuppressants, Ciclosporin, Calcineurin, Nonribosomal peptide

31

The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin orchestrates sexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence via branched downstream pathways in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans The calcineurin binding protein Cbp1, the calcineurin temperature suppressor Cts1, the calcineurin responsive zinc finger transcription factor Crz1, and the calcineurin targets Pbp1, Tif3, and Puf4 all function downstream of calcineurin to orchestrate distinct cellular processes. To elucidate how the calcineurin pathway regulatory network governs unisexual reproduction, stress responses, and virulence, we have analyzed the self-filamentous C. deneoformans strain, XL280α, and generated double mutants of these calcineurin downstream genes. We demonstrated that calcineurin governs unisexual reproduction at different sexual developmental stages, in which the initiation of the yeast-hyphal morphological transition is independent of Crz1, whereas the sporulation process is dependent on Crz1. Calcineurin-dependent unisexual reproduction is independent of the pheromone response pathway. Crz1 synergistically interacts with different calcineurin downstream targets in responding to ER, high calcium, and cell wall stresses. We observed a wide-spread synergy suggesting that these proteins function in complex branched pathways downstream of calcineurin with some functional redundancy, which may allow efficient signaling network rewiring within the pathway for prompt adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we showed that deletion of PBP1 or TIF3 in the cna1∆ mutant background conferred a modest level of growth tolerance at 37°C, but the cna1∆ pbp1∆ and cna1∆ tif3∆ double mutants were both avirulent, suggesting that calcineurin may control virulence via mechanisms beyond thermotolerance.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Protein structure, Reproduction, Enzyme, Cryptococcus neoformans, Phosphatase, Calcineurin

28

Leptin, a product of the obesity gene, has been shown to produce cardiac hypertrophy. Although leptin’s mechanism of action is poorly understood activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been proposed as a contributing mechanism. The Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin plays a critical role in the hypertrophic program although it is not known whether leptin can activate this signaling pathway or whether there is a relationship between RhoA activation and calcineurin. Accordingly, we determined the effect of leptin on calcineurin activation and assessed the possible role of RhoA. Experiments were performed using cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes exposed to 50ng/ml leptin for 24h which resulted in a robust hypertrophic response. Moreover, leptin significantly increased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) concentrations which was associated with significantly reduced activity of the 3Na(+)-2K(+)ATPase. The hypertrophic response to leptin were completely abrogated by both C3 exoenzyme (C3), a RhoA inhibitor as well as the reverse mode 3Na(+)-1Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor KB-R7943 ((2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl] ethyl]isothiourea methanesulfonate), however only the effect of the latter was associated with attenuation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations whereas Ca(2+) concentrations were unaffected by C3. Similarly, C3 and KB-R7943 significantly attenuated early leptin-induced increase in calcineurin activity as well as the increase in nuclear translocation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. The hypertrophic response to leptin was also associated with increased p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and increased p38, but not ERK1/2, translocation into nuclei. Both p38 responses as well as hypertrophy were abrogated by KB-R7943 as well as the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 although ERK1/2 phosphorylation was unaffected. Our study therefore demonstrates a critical role for the calcineurin pathway in mediating leptin-induced hypertrophy. Moreover, we report a novel RhoA-dependent leptin-induced calcineurin activation which acts independently of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Enzyme, Cell biology, Transcription factor, Kinase, Attenuation, Calcineurin, Hypertrophy

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Calcineurin is a ubiquitously expressed calcium-dependent phosphatase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Measuring calcineurin activity in transplant patients has been complicated by a lack of consistent correlation between drug level and enzyme activity, particularly with chronic use. Data from mice lacking the CnAα or CnAβ isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin demonstrate that loss of CnAβ results in immunosuppression, whereas loss of CnAα does not. As such, methods to examine activity of the CnAβ isoform may be more clinically relevant than nonspecific assays.

Concepts: Immune system, Molecular biology, Enzyme, Immunosuppression, Immunosuppressive drug, Recreational drug use, Phosphatase, Calcineurin

26

Since its introduction in photomedicine in 1983 ECP (extracorporeal photopheresis) has over the past decades been established as a safe and effective treatment approach for the palliative management of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the Sezary syndrome variant in particular. Subsequently its effectiveness has been well documented in a number of additional T-cell-mediated diseases, particularly in the treatment and prevention of acute and chronic graft-vs. -host disease. More recently, ECP has been successfully used to treat acute heart allograft rejection and chronic allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation without increasing infectious complications. As recently documented ECP was also used as a part of CNI (calcineurin inhibitors) sparing or staggering protocols. For this group of patients it is proposed that its efficacy may be partly attributed through direct induction of lymphocyte apoptosis (Tambur et al., 2000) [1] and subsequent production of regulatory T cells (Treg) (Lamioni et al., 2007) [2,3] without causing general immunosuppression. However, the exact indications for use of ECP within this framework are not yet finalized.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Medical terms, B cell, Organ, T cells, Organ transplant, Calcineurin

20

Intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide has been first-line treatment for inducing disease remission in lupus nephritis. The comparative efficacy and toxicity of newer agents such as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and calcineurin inhibitors are uncertain.

Concepts: Systemic lupus erythematosus, Immunosuppressive drug, Lupus nephritis, Cyclophosphamide, Mycophenolic acid, Mycophenolate mofetil, Calcineurin

9

Calcineurin is an essential Ca2+-dependent phosphatase. Increased calcineurin activity is associated with α-synuclein (α-syn) toxicity, a protein implicated in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Calcineurin can be inhibited with Tacrolimus through the recruitment and inhibition of the 12-kDa cis-trans proline isomerase FK506-binding protein (FKBP12). Whether calcineurin/FKBP12 represents a native physiologically relevant assembly that occurs in the absence of pharmacological perturbation has remained elusive. We leveraged α-syn as a model to interrogate whether FKBP12 plays a role in regulating calcineurin activity in the absence of Tacrolimus. We show that FKBP12 profoundly affects the calcineurin-dependent phosphoproteome, promoting the dephosphorylation of a subset of proteins that contributes to α-syn toxicity. Using a rat model of PD, partial elimination of the functional interaction between FKBP12 and calcineurin, with low doses of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compound Tacrolimus, blocks calcineurin’s activity toward those proteins and protects against the toxic hallmarks of α-syn pathology. Thus, FKBP12 can endogenously regulate calcineurin activity with therapeutic implications for the treatment of PD.

Concepts: Protein structure, Pharmacology, Amino acid, Signal transduction, Enzyme, Neurology, Neurodegenerative disorders, Calcineurin

7

Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), commercially available since 2000-2001, are the first and only topical medications approved for chronic treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in pediatric patients and remain a welcomed alternative to topical corticosteroids. In January 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a boxed warning requirement based on a theoretical risk of malignancy (including lymphoma) with TCI use. However, in the years since, analyses of epidemiologic and clinical data have failed to demonstrate a causal relationship between TCI use and malignancy or lymphoma risk, especially for pimecrolimus cream. In fact, the observed number of malignancies and lymphomas observed both in post-marketing surveillance and reported to the FDA using its adverse events reporting system is much lower among TCI-exposed patients than the expected number for the general population. Furthermore, among children enrolled in post-marketing pediatric registry studies for both tacrolimus and pimecrolimus followed for up to 5.5 years [10,724 patient-years (PY)] or 6.5 years (16,219 PY), respectively, the observed number of malignancies and lymphomas is very low and similar to the number expected for a sample of similar size in the general population. In addition to reporting these comparative malignancy and lymphoma data, this article provides a historical overview of the boxed warning requirement and critically evaluates the preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological evidence that has thus far failed to substantiate a relationship between TCI use and malignancy. The authors also provide practical clinical advice for optimizing AD management and patient care in the context of the boxed warning.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Food and Drug Administration, Hematological malignancy, Tacrolimus, Atopic dermatitis, Calcineurin, Pimecrolimus

6

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. Arming ourselves with appropriate and safe treatment modalities to provide relief for this chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition is of utmost importance to our patients and their families. Utilizing topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) for the treatment of AD not responsive to high-potency corticosteroids, or low-potency corticosteroids and localized to the face, eyelids, and skin folds of patients >2 years, is reasonable to include in common practice. Despite the FDA¿s Black Box warning, to date no evidence has been published linking the TCIs to an increased incidence of malignancy in either children or adults that establishes causation. The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) therefore recognizes that the benefits of TCIs should be carefully weighed with the theoretical risks in advising patients, and acknowledges that long-term studies remain in progress. The safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus should therefore be considered when treating children and adults with AD in Canadian allergy and immunology practices.

Concepts: Asthma, Medical terms, Allergy, Atopy, Tacrolimus, Atopic dermatitis, Calcineurin, Pimecrolimus

5

We demonstrate that cortical interneurons derived from ventral eminences, including the caudal ganglionic eminence, undergo programmed cell death. Moreover, with the exception of VIP interneurons, this occurs in a manner that is activity-dependent. In addition, we demonstrate that, within interneurons, Calcineurin, a calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in sequentially linking activity to maturation (E15-P5) and survival (P5-P20). Specifically, embryonic inactivation of Calcineurin results in a failure of interneurons to morphologically mature and prevents them from undergoing apoptosis. By contrast, early postnatal inactivation of Calcineurin increases apoptosis. We conclude that Calcineurin serves a dual role of promoting first the differentiation of interneurons and, subsequently, their survival.

Concepts: Enzyme, Apoptosis, Prokaryote, Programmed cell death, Caspase, Phosphatase, Calcineurin, Anoikis