SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Calamine

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To fabricate a friction-reducing and antibacterial coating with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Zinc acetate, Calamine

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Vertically oriented zinc oxide nanostructures based disposable diagnostic biosensor for detecting and quantifying levels of cardiac troponin-T from human serum has been developed.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Zinc acetate, Calamine

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To investigate the physical and biological properties of bioinspired zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via aqueous leaf extracts of Sageretia thea.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Zinc acetate, Calamine

23

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Ammonia (NH₃) gas is a prominent air pollutant that is frequently found in industrial and livestock production environments. Due to the importance in controlling pollution and protecting public health, the development of new platforms for sensing NH₃ at room temperature has attracted great attention. In this study, a sensitive NH₃ gas device with enhanced selectivity is developed based on zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnO NFs) decorated with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and operated at room temperature. ZnO NFs were prepared by electrospinning followed by calcination at 500 °C for 3 h. The electrospun ZnO NFs are characterized to evaluate the properties of the as-prepared sensing materials. The loading of PSS to prepare ZnO NFs/PSS composite is also optimized based on the best sensing performance. Under the optimal composition, ZnO NFs/PSS displays rapid, reversible, and sensitive response upon NH₃ exposure at room temperature. The device shows a dynamic linear range up to 100 ppm and a limit of detection of 3.22 ppm and enhanced selectivity toward NH₃ in synthetic air, against NO₂ and CO, compared to pure ZnO NFs. Additionally, a sensing mechanism is proposed to illustrate the sensing performance using ZnO NFs/PSS composite. Therefore, this study provides a simple methodology to design a sensitive platform for NH₃ monitoring at room temperature.

Concepts: Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Ceramic materials, Calamine

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The rapid increase in production and usage of ZnO particles in recent years has instigated the concerns regarding their plausible effects on the environment. Current study explores the trophic transfer potential of ZnO particles of different sizes (50, 100 nm and bulk particles) from algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) to daphnia (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and the contribution of ZnO(ions)(effect of dissolved Zn ions that remain in test medium after separation NPs) to the overall toxicity of ZnO(total)(impact of both particle and dissolved Zn ions). Toxicity and uptake of ZnO(total)and ZnO(ions)in algae were found to be dependent on the concentration and particle size. Feeding of Zn accumulated algae (517 ± 28, 354.7 ± 61 and 291 ± 20 µg/g dry wt.) post-exposure to 61 µM of ZnO(total)of 50, 100 nm and bulk ZnO particles caused a significant decrease in the survival (15-20%) of daphnia. A significant amount of Zn accumulation was observed in daphnia even after the 48 h depuration period. Biomagnification factor was found to be nearly 1 for all the sizes of ZnO particles tested. For 50 nm ZnO, the BMF was higher when compared to other two sizes, reaching the mean value of 1.06 ± 0.01 at 61 µM. Further analysis revealed that the dietary uptake of different sizes of ZnO particles caused ultra-structural damages and degradation of internal organs in daphnia.

Concepts: Zinc, Arithmetic mean, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Calamine

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To lower the unfavorable internal concentration polarization effect in forward osmosis (FO) membranes, support layers of highly porous interconnected structures with specifically large surface-to-volume ratios are indispensable. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been introduced as a new template to manipulate the porous structure of polyethersulfone (PES) support layer. The ZnO can be readily synthesized as desired in different dimensionally controlled nanostructures. The performance of the FO membrane was initially ameliorated in terms of permeability and selectivity through simple incorporation of ZnO nanostructures in the PES support layer. The PES support layer was blended with appropriate amounts of ZnO nanostructures, casted on a glass plate, and subsequently acid washed to leach out the embedded ZnO nanostructures. Different nano-porous structures were achieved when ZnO of different nanostructures were used to modify the PES support layer. The experimental results indicated that the permeability of FO membranes could be simply improved by incorporation of ZnO nanostructures in PES support layer. Higher hydrophilicity and formation of suitable internal pores were mainly responsible for such observation. Although surface hydrophilicity of the support layers was reduced after being acid washed, water permeation through the membrane was intensified due to the formation of interconnected porous structure.

Concepts: Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Osmosis, Calamine

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Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used in the analysis fields of traditional Chinese medicine. It has the advantages of fast analysis, no damage to samples and no pollution. In this research, a fast quantitative model for zinc oxide (ZnO) content in mineral medicine calamine was explored based on NIR spectroscopy. NIR spectra of 57 batches of calamine samples were collected and the first derivative (FD) method was adopted for conducting spectral pretreatment. The content of ZnO in calamine sample was determined using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) titration and taken as reference value of NIR spectroscopy. 57 batches of calamine samples were categorized into calibration and prediction set using the Kennard-Stone (K-S) algorithm. Firstly, in the calibration set, to calculate the correlation coefficient ® between the absorbance value and the ZnO content of corresponding samples at each wave number. Next, according to the square correlation coefficient (r2) value to obtain the top 50 wave numbers to compose the characteristic spectral bands (4081.8-4096.3, 4188.9-4274.7, 4335.4, 4763.6,4794.4-4802.1, 4809.9, 4817.6-4875.4cm-1), which were used to establish the quantitative model of ZnO content using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithm. Then, the 50 wave numbers were operated by the mean impact value (MIV) algorithm to choose wave numbers whose absolute value of MIV greater than or equal to 25, to obtain the optimal characteristic spectral bands (4875.4-4836.9, 4223.6-4080.9cm-1). And then, both internal cross and external validation were used to screen the number of hidden layer nodes of BP-ANN. Finally, the number 4 of hidden layer nodes was chosen as the best. At last, the BP-ANN model was found to enjoy a high accuracy and strong forecasting capacity for analyzing ZnO content in calamine samples ranging within 42.05-69.98%, with relative mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 1.66% and coefficient of determination (R2) of 95.75% in internal cross and relative mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.98%, R2 of 97.94% and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 6.11 in external validation.

Concepts: Zinc, Derivative, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Standard deviation, Complex number, Zinc oxide, Near infrared spectroscopy, Calamine

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Over the past few decades zinc oxide (ZnO)-based thin films and nanostructures have shown unprecedented performance in a wide range of applications. In particular, owing to high isoelectric point, biocompatibility and other multifunctional characteristics, ZnO has extensively been studied as a transduction material for biosensor development. The fascinating properties of ZnO help retain biological activity of the immobilized biomolecule and help in achieving enhanced sensing performance. As a consequence of recent advancements in this multidisciplinary field, diagnostic biosensors are expanding beyond traditional clinical labs to point-of-care and home settings. Label-free electrical detection of biomarkers has been demonstrated using ZnO-sensing platforms. In this review we highlight the characteristics of ZnO that enable realization of its use in development of point-of-care biosensors toward disease diagnosis, in particular cardiovascular diseases.

Concepts: Molecular biology, The Canon of Medicine, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Calamine

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In this paper, capacitive-type humidity sensors were prepared by sequentially drop-coating the aqueous suspensions of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders and polyvinyl pyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide (PVP-RGO) nanocomposites onto interdigitated electrodes. Significant improvements in both sensitivity and linearity were achieved for the ZnO/PVP-RGO sensors compared with the PVP-RGO/ZnO, PVP-RGO, and ZnO counterparts. Moreover, the produced ZnO/PVP-RGO sensors exhibited rather small hysteresis, fast response-recovery time, and long-term stability. Based on morphological and structural analyses, it can be inferred that the excellent humidity sensing properties of the ZnO/PVP-RGO sensors may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the multilayer structure and the supporting roles of the PVP-RGO nanocomposites. The results in this work hence provide adequate guidelines for designing high-performance humidity sensors that make use of the multilayer structure of semiconductor oxide materials and PVP-RGO nanocomposites.

Concepts: Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Band gap, Calamine