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Concept: Cable


Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960°C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed.

Concepts: Copper, Silver, Steel, Wire, Cable, Ductility, Wire drawing


PURPOSE: Cerclage technology is regaining interest due to the increasing number of periprosthetic fractures. Different wiring techniques have been formerly proposed and have hibernated over years. Hereby, they are compared to current cerclage technology. METHODS: Seven groups (n = 6) of different cable cerclage (Ø1.7 mm, crimp closure) configurations (one single cerclage looped once around the shells, one single cerclage looped twice, two cerclages each looped once) and solid wire cerclages (Ø1.5 mm, twist closure) (same configurations as cable cerclages, and two braided wires, twisted around each other looped once) fixed two cortical half shells of human femoral shaft mounted on a testing jig. Sinusoidal cyclic loading with constantly increasing force (0.1 N/cycle) was applied starting at 50 N peak load. Cerclage pretension (P), load leading to onset of plastic deformation (D) and load at total failure (T) were identified. Statistical differences between the groups were detected by univariate ANOVA. RESULTS: Double looped cables (P442N ± 129; D1334N ± 319; T2734N ± 330) performed significantly better (p < 0.05) than single looped cables (P292N ± 56; D646N ± 108; T1622N ± 171) and were comparable to two single cables (P392N ± 154; D1191N ± 334; T2675N ± 361). Double looped wires (P335N ± 49; D752N ± 119; T1359N ± 80) were significantly better (p < 0.05) than single looped wires (P181N ± 16; D343N ± 33; T606N ± 109) and performed similarly to single looped cables. Braided wires (P119N ± 26; D225N ± 55; T919N ± 197) exhibited early loss of pretension and plastic deformation. CONCLUSION: Double looped cerclages provided a better fixation stability compared to a single looped cerclage. Double looped wires were comparable to a single looped cable. The use of braided wires could not be recommended mechanically.

Concepts: Solid mechanics, Wire, Transformer, Electrical wiring, Cable, Cables


A novel device architecture of a coaxial supercapacitor cable that functions both as electrical cable and energy storage device is demonstrated. The inner core is used for electrical conduction and the overlying layers are used for energy storage. This unique design provides excellent flexibility, long and stable cycle lifetimes, and high energy and power densities. All these remarkable results demonstrate a clear technological advance achieved by clubbing electrical conduction and energy storage into a single cable.

Concepts: Engineering, Uranium, Demonstration, Flywheel energy storage, Energy storage, Cable, Electric double-layer capacitor, Coaxial cable


Electrical signalling over long distances is an efficient way of achieving cell-to-cell communication in living organisms. In plants, the phloem can be considered as a ‘green cable’ that allows the transmission of action potentials (APs) induced by stimuli such as wounding and cold. Measuring phloem potential changes and separating them from secondary responses of surrounding tissues can be achieved using living aphids as bioelectrodes. Two glutamate receptor-like genes (GLR3.3 and 3.6) were identified as being involved in the propagation of electrical activity from the damaged to undamaged leaves. However, phloem APs are initiated and propagated independently of these glutamate receptors. Here, we propose new screening approaches to obtain further information on the components required for electrical signalling in phloem cables.

Concepts: Gene, Organism, Life, Plant, Electrical wiring, Cable, Power cable, Cable tray


A novel device architecture of an integrated coaxial cable that functions both as electrical cable and energy-storage device is demonstrated by J. Thomas and Z. Yu, on page 4279. The unique design of this innovative lightweight, flexible, and space-saving cable makes it very attractive for many applications including all-electric and hybrid vehicles, aircraft, heavy machinery, solar energy storage, and many others.

Concepts: Energy, Sun, Solar energy, Internal combustion engine, Electric vehicle, Cable, Hybrid vehicle, Coaxial cable


Continuum manipulators offer many advantages compared to their rigid-linked counterparts, such as increased degrees of freedom and workspace volume. Inspired by biological systems, such as elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, many continuum manipulators are made of multiple segments that allow large-scale deformations to be distributed throughout the body. Most continuum manipulators currently control each segment individually. For example, a planar cable-driven system is typically controlled by a pair of cables for each segment, which implies two actuators per segment. In this article, we demonstrate how highly coupled crossing cable configurations can reduce both actuator count and actuator torque requirements in a planar continuum manipulator, while maintaining workspace reachability and manipulability. We achieve highly coupled actuation by allowing cables to cross through the manipulator to create new cable configurations. We further derive an analytical model to predict the underactuated manipulator workspace and experimentally verify the model accuracy with a physical system. We use this model to compare crossing cable configurations to the traditional cable configuration using workspace performance metrics. Our work here focuses on a simplified planar robot, both in simulation and in hardware, with the goal of extending this to spiraling-cable configurations on full 3D continuum robots in future work.

Concepts: Das Model, Actuator, Robotics, Robot, Segment, Elephant, Cable, Octopus


Fires involving electrical cables are one of the main hazards in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Cables are complex assemblies including several polymeric parts (insulation, bedding, sheath) constituting fuel sources. This study provides an in-depth characterization of the fire behavior of two halogen-free flame retardant cables used in NPPs using the cone calorimeter. The influence of two key parameters, namely the external heat flux and the spacing between cables, on the cable fire characteristics is especially investigated. The prominent role of the outer sheath material on the ignition and the burning at early times was highlighted. A parameter of utmost importance called transition heat flux, was identified and depends on the composition and the structure of the cable. Below this heat flux, the decomposition is limited and concerns only the sheath. Above it, fire hazard is greatly enhanced because most often non-flame retarded insulation part contributes to heat release. The influence of spacing appears complex, and depends on the considered fire property.

Concepts: Nuclear physics, Coal, Nuclear power, Fire, Combustion, Electricity generation, Fuel, Cable


The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques. This study, however, explores an alternative strategy, namely to directly entrain a metal cable in the concrete filament during printing to serve as reinforcement. A device is introduced to apply the reinforcement. Several options for online reinforcement media are compared for printability. Considerations specific to the manufacturing process are discussed. Subsequently, pull-out tests on cast and printed specimens provide an initial characterisation of bond behaviour. Bending tests furthermore show the potential of this reinforcement method. The bond stress of cables in printed concrete was comparable to values reported for smooth rebar but lower than that of the same cables in cast concrete. The scatter in experimental results was high. When sufficient bond length is available, ductile failure behaviour for tension parallel to the filament direction can be achieved, even though cable slip occurs. Further improvements to the process should pave the way to achieve better post-crack resistance, as the concept in itself is feasible.

Concepts: Inkjet printer, Reinforcement, Mortar, Concrete, Cable, Cables, Masonry, Cable harness


Humeral periprosthetic fractures are a challenging problem and their occurrence has increased, particularly over the last decade. The role of cerclage wires or cables in these fractures includes revisions with longer stems, and augmentation of a plate osteosynthesis in which the stem does not allow additional screw placement or structural bone grafts as supplementary fixation. These procedures are demanding because of the proximity of the radial nerve within the operating field. Placing a cerclage wire or cable around the fractured fragments offers a simple and safe procedure to avoid radial nerve injury or palsy in the treatment of complex humeral shaft fractures. This new technique is a simple and safe procedure to place a cerclage wire or cable around the humeral shaft.

Concepts: Bone fracture, Fracture, Surgery, Brachioradialis, Wire, Radial nerve, Cable, Power cable


Extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO) is a well-established surgical technique used for femoral stem retrieval in revision hip arthroplasty procedures. Fixation of ETO is commonly achieved through wire, cable or cable-plate fixation. No evidence exists to date to suggest which method is superior when used in an acute traumatic setting.

Concepts: Surgery, Hip replacement, Orthopedic surgery, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Wire, Cable, Cables