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Concept: Cabernet Sauvignon

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Sauvignon blanc wines are produced under a wide variety of winemaking conditions, some of which include different fruit-ripening levels, cold soaks and the use of fining agents and inert gases. Anecdotal evidence suggests that sensory variations among these wines may have to do with their phenolic composition and concentration. Therefore the aim of this work was to study the effects of different winemaking conditions typically used in Chile on the phenolic composition and concentration of Sauvignon blanc wines.

Concepts: Oenology, Fermentation, Noble gas, Gases, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay, Chilean wine

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Abstract: In this study, ten clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition and assessment of wine quality made by micro vinification in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Cabernet Sauvignon

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Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

Concepts: Ethanol, Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Winemaking

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Yan73 is a ‘teinturier’ red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Wine, Oenology, Polyphenol, Grape, Cabernet Sauvignon, Anthocyanin

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The evolution of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol acetate (3MHA) and other key aroma compounds has been monitored in New Zealand Sauvignon blanc wines stored for 1 year at three different temperatures (5, 10 and 18 °C). The main processes that occurred in the Sauvignon blanc wines during bottle ageing were hydrolysis of 3MHA and other acetate esters, hydrolysis of ethyl esters of fatty acids, and the formation of ethyl esters of branched acids. The kinetic parameters of ester hydrolysis, including reaction rate constants and activation energies, were determined, which allow prediction of future wine composition based upon storage temperature and time. It was found that 3MHA had the highest reaction rate constant, meaning that this compound is the most unstable, particularly at higher storage temperatures, and that it disappeared very fast during wine storage.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Ester, Reaction rate constant, Wine, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay

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Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.

Concepts: Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Oak, Chardonnay, Sangiovese, Chilean wine

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Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS) was used to analyse the volatiles in five types of wines elaborated with grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir varieties. Fisher ratio, principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were used to develop a discriminant model and, as a result, 12 volatile compounds enabled differentiation and classification of wines according to grape cultivars. A detailed examination of GC×GC/TOFMS data showed that the use of one-dimensional gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector (1D-GC/MS) would probably result in misidentification of some of these 12 compounds, as they showed partial coelution with other components in the first chromatographic dimension.

Concepts: Multivariate statistics, Principal component analysis, Wine, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grape varieties, Chardonnay, Chilean wine, International variety

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Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines.

Concepts: Yeast, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Oak, Winemaking, Chilean wine

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The impact of wine pH and closure type on colour, tannin concentration and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, the wines bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin™ (ST) or Saranex™ (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin % yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds) and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening in wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less % (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, while the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in % yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine colour of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

Concepts: Bottle, Wine, Tannin, Oenology, Polyphenol, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chilean wine

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The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ∼73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

Concepts: Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Monomer, Wine, Cabernet Sauvignon, Winemaking, Chilean wine